English Literature and Grammar

If it rains, I shall stay at home.
Bob Clark


Conditionals are sentences in which the main-clause as well as the subordinate-clause express conditions. In each of the clauses one event follows the other or depends upon the other.

Let us look at these sentences

If it rains, I shall stay at home. (1st Conditional)

I shall stay at home if it rains.

If it rained, I would stay at home. (2nd Conditional)

I would stay at home if it rained.

If it had rained, I would have stayed at home. (3rd Conditional)

I would have stayed at home if it hadrained.

We notice that in each of these sentences have two clauses – the main clause and the subordinate clause.

I will stay at home if it rains.

Main clause subordinate clause

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Teaching Digital and Media Literacy Skills in High School

The Unraveled Traveler

Media is around us all the time. We are constantly consuming media even when we don’t realize it. The digital age has brought an ever-present stream of media messages that are nearly impossible to escape. What does this mean for the high school English classroom? After a year of reflecting on this very question, I’ve decided to revamp how I structure my high school ELA classes. Instead of making short stories, novels, poetry, and plays the center focus of my units, I’ve started making media analysis the primary focus with those classic literature elements as supporting readings.

Students generally have a difficult time sorting through media and determining what is real or fake, or what is a paid ad. Take a look at this article from NPR, Students Have ‘Dismaying’ Inability To Tell Fake News From Real, Study Finds. Although the study mentioned is from 2016, it does a…

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Cyber Caution

Photo by Alex Knight

Don’t go digital
Don’t go digital
Don’t go digital guys
Connect through  your hearts
Connect through  your words
Connect through  your eyes.

That technology which helped us
To rule over other beings
Will be used by bots to rule humans
Making us useless things.

Hide from the servers
Protect all that you can
Before you know what hit you
Machines will rule over man.

In the polluted world we’ll venture not
Being dependent for every need
Today’s generation will be blamed
For sowing such slavery’s seed.

Let’s not let our wants
Grow like harmful weed
Let’s be happy with little things
Let’s not bow down to greed.

Don’t go digital
Don’t go digital
Don’t go digital guys
Connect with your hearts
Connect with your words
Connect with your eyes.

Ch – 2 Adventures of Toto -Class 9 – CBSE English – Moments – Question/ Answers NCERT

Adventures of Toto
Ruskin Bond

Think about It

Q.1. How does Toto come to Grandfather’s private zoo ?

Ans. Grandfather is fond of animals. When he sees Toto tied to the feeding-trough of a tonga-drivers carriage, looking quite out of place, he decides to add him to his private zoo. He buys Toto from the tonga-driver for a sum of rupees five.

Q.2.” Toto was a pretty monkey.” In what sense is he pretty?

Ans. Toto has bright, mischievous, sparkling eyes beneath deep set eyebrows. His teeth are pearly white which he displays in sparkling smiles that terrifies the Anglo-Indian ladies. Apart from which he has deft fingers and a long tail which he uses as a third hand and to swing himself around.

Q.3. Why does Grandfather take Toto to Saharanpur and how ? Why does the ticket collector insist on calling Toto a dog ?

Ans. 4. Grandfather needed to travel to Saharanpur to collect his pension. He is compelled to take Toto to Saharanpur as Toto would not let the other animals in the servant’s quarters sleep. Therefore, Toto is put inside a strong canvas bag which is impossible for him to bite through. As a result, the passengers at the Dehra Dun platform gets entertained by a canvas bag that keeps rolling and hopping.
Toto manages to put his head out and smile at the ticket collector, just when it is grandfather’s turn to produced his ticket at the turnstile. Since, there is no provision for issuing tickets for monkeys, the ticket collector insists that Toto is a dog and makes grandfather pay three rupees for carrying a dog.

Q.4. How does Toto take a bath ? Where has he learnt to do this ? How does Toto almost boil himself alive ?

Ans.4. Grandmother is a kind soul and gives a treat of a warm bath to Toto as well as the author. Toto checks the temperature of the water cautiously and then puts one feet after the other before submerging himself to his neck. Thereafter, he rubs himself with soap. When the water becomes cold he runs to the kitchen fire to dry himself. He is offended if anyone laughs at him to see him do so.
Toto has learnt to take his bath by observing the author when he took his bath.
A kettle full of water is put on the kitchen fire for tea. When Toto checks the temperature it is comfortably warm for a bath, so he puts himself inside the kettle. As the water becomes warmer he feels uncomfortable and raises himself out. But finding the temperature cold outside he gets inside the kettle. This continues till grandmother reaches there and hauls him out of the kettle almost half boiled.

Q.5. Why does the author say, “Toto was not the sort of pet we could keep for long ?’’

Ans.5. Toto’s antics are too expensive for the family to bear. He keeps destroying plates, dishes, curtains, clothes, wallpapers whose losses are too much for the family to afford, as they are not very well-off. Gradually, the author as well as his grandfather realises that they can not afford to keep him, and he is sold back to the tonga-driver by grandfather for a sum of rupees three.

Indian Heritage

Our country’s heritage has grown
For thousands of years.
Crafted through generations,
Into an exquisite tapestry
Of cultures across the world.

The ancient art of Ajanta Ellora,
Magnificent sculptures of Khajuraho,
Lingaraj , Kailashnath, Konark,
The brilliance of the Taj.
Stand witness to craftsmanship
Polished through millenniums.

Rich in texts, from Vedas to Gitanjali.
Dance forms of Odissi, Bharatnatyam
Kuchipudi, Kathak, Mohiniattam
Classical music, songs and folklore
Distilled refined tuned to perfection
Makes us swing to mellifluous tunes.

Languages, dresses and delicacies,
Of different cultures and traditions.
Create a motley of colours and gaity,
Enriching every soul that comes in touch.
This priceless heritage of ours,
We pledge to protect and preserve.

Photo by Sumita Tah
This wheel is a part of Konark temple crafted in the form of the chariot of Sun God driven by seven horses.
Each of these wheels tells a story as well the time to minutes as the rays of the sun fall on it.

Parental Home Sans Parents

Photo by Anastasiya Lobanovskaya

Memories drizzled as I gazed,
On my childhood haven.
Laughter, music , faces;
Glide through my mind.
A smile reaches my eyes,
Only to flow down in tears.
A dull ache brings up a lump,
To be swallowed down asap.
Dear voices no longer heard,
Love no longer visible to the eye.
I take refuge in the notion that
Everything’s transient, temporal
And shall fade away with time.
My journey too shall end,
Like those that are yet to be born.
Characters of an incomplete epic,
Authored by the omniscient, omnipotent.
I bow down with gratitude,
And leave the scene with a sigh.

Beehive : Ch -2. The Sound of Music -Questions and Answers


     Part I 

     Evelyn Glennie Listens to Sound without Hearing It

Thinking about the Text

I.Answer these questions in a few words or a couple of sentences each.

1.How old was Evelyn when she went to the Royal Academy of Music?

Ans. Evelyn was seventeen years old when she went to the Royal Academy of Music.

2. When was her deafness first noticed? When was it confirmed?

Ans. Evelyn’s deafness at its primary level was noticed by her mother when she was eight years old waiting to play the piano.

It was confirmed by a specialist when she was eleven.

II.Answer each of these questions in a short paragraph (30–40 words).

1. Who helped her to continue with music? What did he do and say?

Ans. Ron Forbes (a percussionist) assisted her in continuing with music.

         He tuned two drums to higher and lower notes. He then advised her not to listen through ears but try to sense the vibrations. Evelyn realized that she could feel the higher notes waist up, and the lower ones waist down.

2. Name the various places and causes for which Evelyn performs.

Ans. Evelyn performs internationally in various concerts and provides pleasure to music lovers around the world. Apart from regular concerts she gives free performances in prisons and hospitals to make them happy. She holds classes for young musicians. She also performs and teaches in deaf schools to inspire and motivate deaf children to become successful.

III.Answer the question in two or three paragraphs (100–150 words).

1. How does Evelyn hear music?

Ans.  Evelyn feels music through her whole body. When she lost her sense of hearing and still wanted to learn xylophone, master percussionist Ron Forbes saw her potential and made her sense musical notes through her body. He tuned two drums to higher and lower notes and told her to feel the music. She began to realize that she could differentiate between higher notes which she could feel waist up, and the lower ones which she could feel waist down.

 She says that she feels music tingling in her skin, her cheekbones and even her hair. While playing the xylophone, she senses the vibrations passing up the sticks to her fingertips. By leaning against the drums she feels the resonances flowing through her body. She performs barefoot on wooden platforms so that she can sense the vibrations pass through her bare feet up her legs. Therefore, although she has lost her hearing she feels music through her entire being which makes her music so profound.

Motherland India

The queen of queens is India,
The prettiest of them all;
Mother to millions of children,
Whom she helps to stand tall.

She’s abundant in resources,
The richest in terms of true wealth.
From minerals to nature’s bounty,
Which develops mind and health.

Protected by nature’s soldiers,
The Himalayas and the seas.
Enriched by varied landscapes;
From deserts to deltas and trees.

Rich minds and culture polished,
Through boundless time and space.
Munificent minds who embrace,
Diversity of religion and race.

To motherland we bow down,
For bringing up children so fair.
Who are strong, wise yet gentle;
Spiritual souls who share.

We shall strive to make you proud;
We shall never any effort spare.
My motherland, O! My India!
We pledge to take your care.

Ch-1,The Lost Child by Mulk Raj Anand

                                                                         MOMENTS Ch 1 – NCERT Class -9

About the author:

Mulk Raj Anand (12/10/1905- 28/9/2004) is famous for his stories related to the traditional society and the poor of India. He wrote short stories and novels portraying the lives of the downtrodden in a sympathetic and realistic manner. His famous works include- ‘Coolie’, ‘Untouchable’, ‘The Village’, ‘The Big Heart’ and ‘Seven Ages of Man’.


The author begins the story with the description of a spring morning when the village lot, dressed in a medley of colours set off to visit the temple fair. A child with his parents also sets off for the fair, excited and gay. He is attracted towards the toy shops along the way, but his father gets angry when he demands to buy them. His mother however is in a pleasant mood and tries to distract him by showing him the mustard field that shines like liquid gold in the golden sun. The boy is enthralled with the dragon flies, butterflies and the lone black bee that are seen to be fluttering gaily over the mustard fields. He also becomes engrossed watching the insects and worms along the footpath,  as a result  he lags behind his parents.

When his parents went to sit down in a grove, he runs towards them and is greeted by a shower of flowers which he collects in his little hands. Soon he hears the cooing of the dove and shouts “The Dove! The Dove!’; forgetting the petals in his hands. Then he capers around the banyan tree in mirth. His parents call him, and then lifts him, up before proceeding towards the fair.

When they reach the fair the child sees many things at the fair, such as sweets like; gulab jamun, rasgulla, burfi, and jalebies. He wants to have burfi as it is his favourite. Next, he yearns for a garland of gulmohur; followed by rainbow coloured balloons. Then, he takes fancy to the snake charmer’s music. Although the boy wants all these things, he moves ahead without waiting for an answer as he knows that his parents would not digress, no matter how much he pleaded.

When he reaches the swirling roundabout, he badly wants to have a ride on it, and turns around boldly to get permission from his parents. It is then that he realizes that he had lost his parents. He cries out and tears start rolling from his eyes. Panic-stricken he runs about here and there, not knowing where to go or what to do. His yellow turban becomes untied and his clothes mud-stained. He seeks his parents everywhere but is unable to find them. He goes near the temple and is pushed around in the crowd. Just as he is about to be trampled, he is rescued by a kind man who picks him up.

The man tries to console him and offers him all the things he had wanted one after the other; but the child is inconsolable and wants nothing except his parents.

Theme of ‘The Lost Child’

The theme of the story is the deep relationship of pure love between parents and a child. No material possession can compensate for the loss of close ones.

Title of ‘The Lost Child’

The title of ‘The lost Child’ approprialtely reflects the flow of the story. On one hand it foreshadows the incident in the story, while on the other hand it tells us about the desires of a child to possess everything he sets his eye upon in this material world. The lost child symbolizes entire mankind in pursuit of material things. Humans take for granted the precious blessings in life which are free. It is only with the loss of these blessings that one realizes its true value. It is then that all material things lose their significance and one helplessly seeks to regain what they have lost.


Q1. What are the things the child sees on his way to the fair? Why does he lag behind?

Ans. On his way to the fair, the child first comes upon toy shops that were lined on the way. In an attempt to distract the child his mother shows him the golden mustard field, full of dragon flies intercepting the flight of a lone black bee. There are also butterflies fluttering about in search of nectar. He also sees insects and worms which come out to enjoy the spring sunshine.

The child lags behind his parents as he is fascinated by the toys in the toyshop and by the dragonflies, butterflies in the mustard field.

Q2. In the fair he wants many things. What are they? Why does he move on without waiting for an answer?

Ans. The child sees many things at the fair, such as sweets like gulab jamun, rasgulla, burfi, and jalebies. He wants to have burfi as it was his favourite. Next, he yearns for a garland of gulmohur; followed by tempting rainbow coloured balloons. Then he takes fancy to the snake charmer’s music. Finally, he badly wants to have a ride on the roundabout.

Although the boy wants all these things, he moves ahead without waiting for an answer as he knows that his parents would not concede no matter how much he pleaded.

Q3. When does he realise that he has lost his way? How have his anxiety and insecurity been described?

Ans. When the little boy receives no reply to his request for a ride on the roundabout, he turns about and realizes that he is lost in the fair.

His fear and insecurity has been brought about in an expressive manner. On finding out that he had lost his way the boy cries out and tears start rolling from his eyes. Panic-stricken he runs about hither- thither, not knowing where to go or what to do. His yellow turban becomes untied and his clothes become mud-stained.

Q4. Why does the lost child lose interest in the things that he had wanted earlier?

Ans. The lost child becomes disinterested in things that had appealed to him earlier as he has lost his parents, who are more precious than anything else,  and wants them back.

Q5. What do you think happens in the end? Does the child find his parents?

Ans. The author has left the story open ended, leaving it to the reader to decide what happens to the child. In my opinion the child would be united with his parents.

The man who rescued the child from the crowd must have helped him find his parents at the end.

Talk about it

How to ensure not to get lost?

To make sure that one is not lost, one must-

  1. Memorize home address.
  2. Learn phone number by heart
  3. Keep an identity card
  4. Children should hold on to parents
  5. Parents should be vigilant