Common Latin Abbreviations in English

AbbreviationsFull Latin WordsMeaningExamples
c.  circa  circa  Shakespeare was born in c 1500.  
cf.  confercompareCf. Sonnet 116 of Shakespeare.  
e.g.exempli  gratiafor example  Books e.g. novels, biographies, fiction.  
et alii/ aliaand othersSherlock Holmes et al.  
etc.Et cetraand so onFruits like apples, oranges, grapes etc.
ibidibidemin the same placeibdi. Page 20 estthat is to sayCold drinks, i.e. soft drinks, cold coffee are available.
N.B.  nota benenote wellN.B. Minimum 5 years of experience is required.
Vide  videseeVide. Document attached
Viz.videlicetnamelyThe members viz. Sam, John, Peter
The bouquet has roses, calendula, lily etc.

How to Self-Publish on Amazon

Nicholas C. Rossis

A writer friend contacted me the other day to ask if I had any how-to posts on self-publishing. Specifically, she was asking for detailed information on how to self-publish her book on Amazon.

I didn’t have anything like that, as this blog assumes you will have already published your book and are looking for ways to promote it. But after a quick search, I realized that Amazon has dedicated an entire microsite to just that. They call it KDP Jumpstart and is a mini-course that walks you through all steps. So, here it is, for any writers who are still looking to self-publish their first book.

KDP Jumpstart

New to Kindle Direct Publishing? Want a simple, step-by-step guide to publishing on Amazon? KDP Jumpstart is a streamlined, sequential approach to the steps required to go from finished manuscript to published book. To publish on KDP, you’ll complete four major…

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All about Punctuation

Punctuation marks are symbols, used to regulate written text, clarify their meaning by separating or linking words, phrases or clauses.

Photo by Pixabay on

The great American inventor and typographer Benjamin Franklin wrote a peculiar epitaph.

Benjamin Franklin, the * of his profession, the type of honesty;  the ! of all; and although the (of death) has put a . to his existence, each) of his life has been without ?

Benjamin Franklin, the star of his profession, the type of honesty; the wonder of all and although parenthesis of death has put a stop to his existence, each curve of his life has been without question,


We use a capital letter –

  1. To begin a sentence. What a piece of work is man!
  2. For proper nouns. The Taj Mahal is a magnificient mausolem.
  3. After full stops. I know her. She is my neighbour.
  4. To begin a fresh line in a poetry. Errors like straws, upon the surface flow; He who search for pearls must dive below.

Compare the two sentences:

  1. Mary says, “Sally is a fool.
  2. Mary,” says Sally, “is a fool.”

From these two sentences it is clear that stops may alter the sense of a sentence. Punctuation means the correct use of such stops.

The principal stops are:

  1. Full stop/Period (U.S)                                                                            (.)
  2. Comma                                                                                                  (,)
  3. Semicolon                                                                                             (;)
  4. Colon                                                                                                     (:)
  5. Question mark/ Note of interrogation                                              (?)
  6. Exclamation mark/Note of exclamation                                           (!)
  7. Quotation mark/ Inverted commas           [ (“”)double]       [(‘’) single]
  8. Apostrophe                                                                                           (‘)
  9. Dash                                                                                                       (_)
  10. Hyphen                                                                                                 (-)
  11. Round bracket/ Curve/ Parenthesis                                                  (())
  12. Brace bracket/ curly bracket                                                             ({})
  13. Square bracket                                                                                      ([])
  14. Angular bracket                                                                                    (<>)
  15. Slash/ Oblique/ Slant/ Virgule                                                            (/)
  16. Back slash                                                                                              (\)
  17. Dots/ suspension Points                                                                      (…)
  18. Ditto marks                                                                                           (,,) (“)
  19. Asterisk/ star                                                                                         (*)
  20. Colon dash                                                                                            ( :- )
  21. Swang dash/ tilde                                                                                 (~)



  1. At  the end of an assertive or an imperative sentence. It represents the longest pause.

Close the door.

It’s a cold day.

  • Usually after common contractions.

Advertisement- advt.   Received- Revd.  Manufacturing- mfg. Expiry date- Exp. Dt.

  • After common abbreviations.

a.m,  p.m,  B.A, M.Tech, M.L.A., e.g., i.e.

[Now-a-days compound names of organisations, designations, degrees are used without fullstop.]


  • To indicate decimal point.

$ 10.50, 20.8 secs, 70.5m

A full stop is NOT used

1. After heading and titles of books  and articles


Arabian Nights

From Log cabin to White House

  • After a signature in a letter

Yours sincerely


  • After dates except at the end of sentence

25th May, 2020

COMMAS [ , ]

Commas represent the shortest pause in a sentence.

Commas are generally used for:

  • Separating phrases or clauses

When I opened my newspaper today, I couldn’t believe my eyes.

Bring a chair, a bottle of water, and a good book.

Being tired of walking, he decided to rest.

  • For separating sequence of words and phrases and is omitted before the conjunction (and).

e.g. I have brought sandwich, cake, fruit and some lemonade.

The night was dark, quiet and scary.

She is  tall, beautiful, honest and intelligent.

  • for separating phrases in apposition

Rabindranath, the great poet, won the noble prize for ‘Gitanjali’.

  • Separating adverbial clause from the principal clause

If it rains, I shall take an umbrella.

When she came here, it was dark.

  • for separating Non- defining Relative clause.

People , who live in glass houses, must not throw stones.

  • For separating co-ordinate clauses joined by co-ordinating conjunctions.

He will definitely come first, for he has studied hard.

  • After nouns of address

Jane, must you always be complaining?

Your Majesty, I’m at your service.

Excuse me, madam, is this your book?

Sir, may I come in?

I’m all right, mom.

  • For separating some words/ phrases at the beginning of a sentence.

 e.g. No, I won’t go to the market now.

 Yes, she has finished reading the book.

By the way, you must visit your grandmother.

I am quite comfortable, thank you.

Therefore, you must meet the boss.

  • i] In between dates and years- March 6, 2020

ii] After thousands in numerals – $ 10,985

iii] In address – 24, Clive House, London

  • For separating Question tags from sentences

 You will visit us, won’t you?

Your brother is a football player, isn’t he?

You have not given her the letter, have you?

She is not going to the stadium, is she?

  • Two commas are used to separate words, phrases, small clauses that interrupt normal sentence structure

E.g. Teacher: You are late again. The rules, as you know, do not allow late comers.

        Sammy: I’ll never, I assure you, be late again, ma’am.

       Teacher: By the way, may I know, why are you late?

       Sammy: Our car, which is old, refused to start in the cold morning.


Semi colons indicate greater pauses than a comma

It is used to

  • Separate clause having relation but not joined by conjunction

e.g. We will stay here; you may go.

Man loves today what he will hate tomorrow; today he seeks something only to shun it tomorrow; he will desire today what he will fear tomorrow.

Ashley is a hardworking boy; a boy who is sincere and devoted; a student who deserves the prize.

  • To mark a stronger division in a sentence when comma is already used.

e.g The children were waiting, impatiently talking among themselves; but none of them, inspite of being tired, complained to their teacher.


Colon represents a longer pause than a semi colon

It is used-

  • To introduce a quoted material

Vivekananda said: Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man.

  • To introduce list of items, comment or explanation.

You will need the following: some flour, four eggs, sugar and vanilla essence.

The dogs began growling : they must have heard a noise.

Learn to acquire the habit of self reliance: no learning is ever complete without it.

  •  To introduce an antithesis

She is famous: but she is unhappy.


It is used

  1. At the end of a direct question

Where are you going?

  • Not at the end of an indirect question.

He asked me where I was going.


  1. At the end of an exclamatory sentence.

What a kind lady she is!

What a beautiful scenery!

  • After interjections

Alas! My dog is dead!

Oh! I forgot to bring the tickets.


It is used

  1. With ‘s’ in possessive cases of Noun

e.g. My brother’s bicycle.

Derick’s shoes.

  • In contracted forms showing omission of letters

You’ve read the book.

I’ve observed that he can’t speak French.

  • In plural form of numbers and letters

Cut you t’s and dot your i’s . During the 1980’s


It is used

  • To form a compound  from two or more words

Brother-in-law,    Mid-day,     Eco-friendly,      Co-education

  • Between spellings of compound numbers (21 – 99)

Twenty-five,    sixty-seven

  • To separate prefix ending with the same vowel

Co-operate,       pre-eminent

  • To indicate the continuity of a word that is divided into two lines. The word is divided by syllables. The hyphen is written at the end of the first line, not at the beginning of the next line.

My sister is always try-

ing to find faults with me.

She scolded me just be-

cause I was late in feed-

 ing my canary.

QUOTATION MARKS OR INVERTED COMMAS [‘        ‘] [“        “]

Inverted commas are used to to mark the exact words of a speaker or a quotation.

In British English single inverted commas [‘      ‘]  and in American English double inverted commas [“     “] are used.

They are used

  • Indicate direct speech

She said, “I am guilty.”

Shakespeare says, “ Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown.”

I would rather die,” he exclaimed, “than be taken as a prisoner.

  • To indicate titles of books, films, poems, etc.

Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’

J.K. Rowling’s ‘The Philosopher’s Stone’

  • To indicate foreign expression

Hitler told about ‘Lebensrium’ (German for ‘living place’)  

  • If a quotation occurs within a quotation, it is marked by single inverted commas.

You might as well say,” added the March Hare,“that ‘I like what I get is the same as I get what I like‘.”

DASH [ – ]

A dash is used

  • To indicate an additional statement or fact

The hill tribes are more friendly – and helpful- than people in the plain.

  • To indicate pause, especially for effect at the end of a sentence

There is only one outcome – downfall.

  • To add an afterthought

She wore a red gown – a very bright red.

  • To indicate range of year or route

2004 – 2010

Delhi – Kolkata highway

  • In place of quotation mark

-Where is your sister?

               -She is in the playground.

BRACKETS (  ) [  ] { } < >

Parenthesis or Round Brackets (  )

Are used to give extra information + cross reference

e.g. Her next film (The Dance of the Dragon) will be releasing soon.

Square brackets   [  ]

Are used for Editor’s comment and extra information

e.g. She left the office [to] see her father.

Curly brackets { }

Are used in prose to designate a list of equal choices

Angle brackets < >

Are used to enclose and illustrate highlighted information


A slash or virgule is used to indicate

  • Fractions

e.g. 2/3 of the cake was eaten by him.

  • Certain abbreviations

Care of = c/o, daughter of = d/o,  wife of = w/o

  • Alternatives

E.g. His/ her admission

  • Lines of poetry set in prose

E.g. I wandered lonely as a cloud/ That floats on high o’er the vales and hills/ When all at once I saw a crowd,/ A host of golden daffodils,

DITTO [ “ ]

Ditto means ‘do’ and it is used to indicate repetition of words

E.g.  All candidates must submit

i)  One copy of Residential certificate

ii)   “       “    “   Birth certificate


A tilde is used informally to mean approximately

e.g. Saute vegetables for ~30 minutes

In mathematical equation it is used for ‘ similar to’

e.g “x~y” x is similar to y in value

A tilde is also used to indicate a range between two numbers

e.g.   “ 72~78”

In Spanish, the tilde is  to represent a nasal sound ‘nyuh’


It is one of the oldest textual marks dating back over 5000 years. It is derived from the Greek word ‘asteriskos‘ which means ‘little star’.

It is used

To denote a footnote which directs the reader to the information located at the bottom of the page. Single *, double **, or triple *** asterisk is used for additional footnotes.

The *immobile elements posed threat to the inhabitants.

*not moving or not being able to move

  • To omit certain letters.

She scared the s*** out of me.

  • To clarify a ‘disclaimer’.

Avail 50% OFF on selected merchandise *

*terms and conditions apply.

McCluskigunj – Little England in Jharkhand

A colonial bungalow in ruins.

The lush green surroundings of McCluskigunj, with its dirt tracks and fresh air is indeed a retreat for the stressed out souls. About 64 kilometres from the capital of Jharkhand, Ranchi; this sleepy town is surrounded by hills, forests and meandering rivulets. It is 1500 feet from sea level and has a pleasant climate throughout the year.

A series of colonial bungalows stand to tell us the story of a dream settlement envisioned by Earnest Timothy McCluskie in 1932. When the 200 year British rule was about to end, the Anglo- Indian community with its British DNA and Indian hearts earned for a Homeland right in the heart of India.

McCluskie in one of his hunting expeditions fell in love with the place in the midst of hills and forests. McCluski leased some 10,000 acres of land from Raja of Ratu and formed a cooperative called The Colonization Society of India. In 1933 he sent invitations to the Anglo-Indian community for settling down in McCluskigunj. About 300 families constructed bungalows in McCluskigunj which came to be known as Little England. Parties, hunting expeditions, high teas and revelry became the order of the day for the inhabitants of McCluskigunj. Joyous days were spent among the beauteous nature of Chhotanagpur Plateau.

By the end of WW-II most of the inhabitants had suffered a setback and decided to leave the place. About 30 families, who had made McCluskigunj their home and couldn’t bear to depart. The effects of settling down in the remote area were seen in the generations to come. The place did not offer career prospects to the future generations, who either moved to the bigger cities or faced a bleak future. There are several heritage bungalows which serve as guest houses to tourists.

Temple and Gurdwara in the same complex speak of brotherhood.

The banks of the Dugadugi River, the Gurdwara and temple in the same complex in Duli village, sunset at Jagrirti Vihara are some of the attractions of this leisurely place apart from the picturesque colonial bungalows dotting the main streets.  The shaded groves, the gurgling river relaxes the mind and rejuvenates the body. It is here that stress develops wings and fades away into oblivion.

Dugadugi River

Fugitive Fate

Photo by Prajakt Rebeloma on

“Come on…. it’s getting late,” yelled Swarna at the top of her voice.  The children scampered all around with excitement. It was natural.  Soham was six and Sona ten, yet they had been on only two vacations in their entire life. The reason was Swarna’s demanding job and never ending fund crisis. 
 Swarna worked in a small firm. The income was meagre and the job demanding.  All private firms were the same – profit oriented.  In spite of her frustrations, Swarna continued her tedious tasks day in and day out in hope of a better future.  This vacation was planned by her, and executed by her husband Joy. Actually his name was Vijay, but Swarna called him Joy which meant victory in Bangla. Joy too called her Soro; a shortened form of Swarna.  She did like the endearment till Sona pointed out that it sounded like sorrow. 
 But by the time Sona had pointed it out; the name itself was ten years old and had achieved a distinct identity.
“Soro!” Joy called out, “it’s time to leave…” “Coming…”  Swarna replied as she hurriedly opened the trunk in which she kept all her expensive saris. She wrapped the small steel box, containing her jewellery, in an old sari belonging to her late mother-in-law, and kept it among the saris inside. It was a small precaution that she always took while leaving the house, she never left it in the safe inside the cupboard. She knew that would be the first place the thieves would steal from in case of a break in.  “ We must buy a locker at a bank, it isn’t safe to keep so much jewellery in the house,” she thought.
Her years of hard work had been transformed into beautiful gold jewellery which she often flaunted at various family functions.  The envious looks of the relatives and friends, gave her the reason to buy more jewellery each year.  From just a pair of earnings and a gold chain that she had during the time of her marriage, she now possessed about twenty items of gold jewellery as well as a couple of expensive saris that she had bought after several severe altercations with Joy.
Satisfied with her work she locked the trunk, and covered it with cushions which turned it into a chair.
She snatched the lunch from the kitchen and headed for the door.
“We’ll miss the train because of you,” her husband grumbled.
Everything went well, and Swarna  posted as many pics and videos as possible. The children enjoyed the beach immensely. Her relatives, friends and colleagues showered them with likes and comments in all the social media accounts that she had.
Swarna was sure they were seething with jealousy inside.
As they arrived at their house, Swarna requested her husband to buy some lunch. She was too tired to move. Joy got down from the taxi at the crossing; and told them to move ahead.  It was only a minutes walk to their home.
Swarna found the key and opened the door.  “I shall sleep for a day before I do any work,” she said to Soham and Sona. “We too,” they replied in unison. 
A wave of shock passed through Swarna as she looked at her living room.  Everything was scattered on the floor. The sari with which she had wrapped the box of jewels, lay on the floor. The window to the living room had been cut open and the thieves had taken their time to remove everything that was worth stealing.
Swarna sank on the floor.  The children hurried to find their possessions. Somewhere through the daze, she heard a voice. “Soro!” .She felt water being sprinkled on her face, and light pats on her cheek from somewhere far beyond.

The Classics Eight: Macbeth by William Shakespeare

Theresa Smith Writes

My daughter recently had to study Macbeth for year 12 senior English, as I had done twenty-five years ago. The assessment itself was essentially unchanged: a monologue presentation followed by an exam. Macbeth is my favourite of all Shakespeare’s works so I was more than happy to revisit the play as a means of helping my daughter out with this final piece of assessment for high school. Out of the two of us, I ended up being the only one to actually read Macbeth in its entirety. Seriously, the internet is a game changer for students today. It puts me in mind of this joke:

My daughter didn’t read the play because she didn’t need to. She could simply Google ‘Macbeth’ and visit any number of useful sites dedicated to dissecting all of the elements in a clear and concise way. If she wanted to, she could have even read…

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Doll’s House

Photo by SplitShire


A home away from home;
We all hope to find.
When away from home we roam,
From those who are always kind.

We seek it in sights and sounds,
We look for the smallest signs.
Hoping to find a home,
Away from the love that binds.

As days turn to months;
And months turn to years,
We learn to expect nothing;
We learn to hide our tears.

We learn to walk alone;
We learn to stand on our own,
We learn to make a home,
When away from home we roam.

Self motivation – the key to success

God has a plan. Trust it, live it, enjoy it.

Nobody has ever been pushed up a mountain. You’ve got to climb it yourself.

There are times when things seem to go out of hand- and the goals that we had set with such enthusiasm don’t seem so bright or interesting anymore. It’s during such bleak periods that we need to boost up our self confidence and get back to the route towards success. It is only the self motivated that achieve success in life. Things like wealth, education, skills may be acquired with the help of others, but true success is achieved only by the self motivated and persistent worker. For being a go-getter one has to have the willpower to get going when the going gets tough.  When things do not go according to our wish and we feel a teeny-weeny bit worn out its time to get ourselves motivated.

10 motivational tips to achieve your goals

Patience is a key element of success.

Bill Gates
  1. Recall – Try to remember the reason for your starting the job at hand. Why is it that you are doing the work at hand? What are the benefits that you would enjoy if you do it beyond your own expectations, and what would you lose if you gave up?  It was easy to set up the goal, but then everything is easier said than done. It is when we find obstacles on our path, or the work turns out to be much more difficult to pursue, that we tend to get de-motivated. Never give up – achievers never do. Every step that you take towards the goal will take you towards your accomplishment, and while doing so– it will polish your skills to make you shine even brighter than ever.

Self motivation is the best motivation because no one knows you better than you do.

2. I can and I will– It is said that practice makes perfect. Do not feel dejected by failures. ‘Failures are the stepping stones towards success.’ If there were no failures, there would not have been successes either. They are two sides of the same coin. Edison tried 1000 times before he invented the light bulb. Most well known writers were turned down by publishers before they became famous. It took Webster 26 years to compile his Dictionary. Every achiever had to face failures before they became famous. Feel happy to be doing the work at hand and develop confidence in your abilities. I can is more powerful than IQ.’

Being positive in a negative situation is not naive… It’s Leadership!

 3. Surround yourself with like-minded achievers- Seeing other people doing similar kind of work acts as an energy booster. It is because of this factor that things get easily done in an office rather than at home. The rules, time-bound factors, as well as the atmosphere create a crescendo that helps in getting the work done faster. Talking, interacting and helping people involved in similar kind of work can help you to get motivated to do your work better.

Don’t compare your insides with the outsides of others. Affirm your worth.

4. Get affirmations– We all love it when our work gets acknowledged. As children we felt overjoyed to get positive feedback from our teachers and peers. Every praise that we received has boosted our confidence and created a liking for that activity. As a teacher I have always been more than generous in giving positive feedback to my students. I have seen the magic that those A’s, stars, smileys and remarks had on my students. So, in absence of external affirmation – pat your own back for every achievement that you have accomplished and pledge to improve upon that.

To succeed in life , you need three things – A wishbone, A back bone and a funnybone.

Reba Mcentire

5. Involve the fun factor – Look at the brighter side of your work and overlook the darker side. Add some humour and fun element to your work. The work has to be completed – so enjoying the work will help in making things lighter and easier.

‘We are what our thoughts have made us; so take care about what you think. Words are secondary. Thoughts live; they travel far.”

Swami Vivekananda

6. Visualise – Think of the time when you would have accomplished your goal. Most successful people meditate and think of their success. Sitting in a quiet place and thinking of your goals helps you to get a bigger picture of the work ahead and the obstructions that you are likely to face. Your mind automatically tries to find solutions and create environments that would propel you towards achieving your goal.

Mistakes teach you important lessons, Every time you make one, you are a step closer to your goal.

7 Read Motivational books: Biographies, autobiographies of famous people and self help books, reassure us that we are on the right track. They confirm that obstacles are, but a part and parcel of achievements. We realise that it is possible to do what we aspire and every problem comes with a solution.

Change the changeable, accept the unchangeable and remove yourself from the unacceptable.

8. Avoid negativity – Negative thoughts as well as people are to be avoided at all costs. The toxic people are parasites of positivity. They suck off positive elements from other people to thrive. Be surrounded with people who help you to bring out the best in you.

The best way to predict the future is to create it.

9. Reward yourself – Rewards work wonders for self motivation. When you feel a bit down and fail to see the brightness and the numerous possibilities around you, think of what blessings you have in life and what you have achieved. Congratulate yourself on your achievements and set further milestones.  Give yourself a reward for each milestone that you reach. Celebrate each win. Be it a pizza or a movie or even a purchase that you really want. Promise yourself more rewards on reaching new milestones.  

Believe in yourself and you will be unstoppable.

10. You are a winner– Start each day with a smile. Spread positivity and it will surround you like a halo. Muhammad Ali used to do his boxing-chanting …‘I’m the Champion! I’m the Champion!’ With each chant he reassured himself that he was undefeatable. You must reassure yourself that you are a winner and the best is yet to come, and all your dreams will definitely come true.

Keep going. Whatever you need will come to you at the right time.