This blog will take a one-week early summer break and come back in June on a new, three-day, Monday-Wednesday-Friday summer schedule. Look for a new post on Monday, June 3.
Diane Ravitch made the announcement yesterday morning on her blog: A U.S. philanthropy has awarded $10 million in prize money to two companies—Kitkit School and Onebillion—for developing and testing out in Tanzania an electronic tablet program for teacherless education. “You knew this was coming, didn’t you?” writes Ravitch.
First it was Bridge International Academies, the for-profit, international private school venture underwritten by Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg and other philanthropists and operating in Kenya, Liberia, Uganda and India. At Bridge Academies, students must pay tuition, teachers in the schools must continually recruit new students, and teachers must present scripted curricula delivered to them electronically from a central site. Critics have pointed out that by employing less educated teachers who merely…
A verb is a word that says , what a person is, has or
Monica is an
Mr Wayne has a
Verb is the heart of a sentence. A sentence almost always has a verb( Except in nominal sentences like” What a lovely picture!”). A sentence can be of a single word, but that word has to be a verb. Eg. Sit . Speak. Stand , Run.
All these words make complete sense and are one word
sentences containing verbs.
Most of the verbs are doing verbs.
‘Be’ and its forms suggests being.
‘Have’ and its forms suggests having.
Verbs may be divided into various categories. Let us first look at the two basic types of verbs. The main verb, and the helping verb or the auxiliaries.
MAIN VERBS and AUXILIARIES
Main verbs are open class verbs which can be used as
There are 5 Main Verb forms:
V1(Present tense) eat
V2(Past tense) ate
V3(Past participle) eaten
V4(Present Participle) eating
Main verbs may be divided into Regular and Irregular verbs.
REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS
All the above verbs end with ‘ed’, ‘d’ or ‘t’ in the past tense which was changed from the present tense with or without any change of the side vowel. These verbs are called regular verbs or weak verbs.
Eg; play , played , played , playing , plays
spend , spent , spent , spending , spends
If a verb does not require the addition of ed, d or
t to form the past tense ,it is a strong
verb. The verbs given below are examples of strong verbs which
are also called irregular verbs.
Eg: go , went , gone , going , goes
sing , sang , sung , singing , sings
These main verbs denote the main action
in a sentence.
Helping verbs are also called auxiliaries.
They are of two types primary auxiliaries and modals.
will be/ shall be
Will do/ shall do
The primary auxiliaries are helping verbs that can form sentences without the help of main verb. Eg. Kiran is intelligent. In this sentence ‘is’ acts like a main verb in order to form a sentence. In the sentence, ‘ I willpaint a picture.’Paint is the main verb, and ‘will‘ is the auxiliary.
Ought to/used to
TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS
Verbs can also be divided into:
i) Transitive verb
i) TRANSITIVE VERB:
A transitive verb is a word that denotes
an action which passes from the subject to the object: These verbs cannot
complete their meaning without object and can be used in active as well as
Eg:i) Nikeflew a kite.
ii)Rosy reciteda poem.
In the first example the action is transferred to the kite , whereas, in the second example the action is transferred to the poem. The words ‘flew’ and ‘ recited’ are transitive verbs.
ii) INTRANSITIVE VERB
An Intransitive verb is a verb which can complete its meaning without an object. These verbs are used in active voice only and may take a complement.
ii)The garden looksbeautiful.
iv)The minister lookedangry.
In the last three examples the words ‘beautiful’, ‘sad’, and ‘angry’ help to complete the
predicate and are called ‘COMPLEMENT’.
FINITE AND NON FINITE VERBS.
I) FINITE VERB: A Finite verb has
present and past forms and changes with
tense, person and number of the subject. It forms an essential part of the
She writes emails. ( Present tense) She wrote emails. (Past tense)
They write emails. (Present tense) They wrote emails. (Past tense)
II) NON FINITE VERBS:
Non finite verbs are of two types.
VERBS: They remain unchanged
in tenses and is preceded by marker ‘to’.
Eg: She likesto draw landscapes. ( Present tense) likes-> finite verb, ‘to draw’-> infinitive verb,
does not change with tense or subject.
Eg: She liked
to draw landscapes. (Past tense)
liked-> finite verb, (changes with tense) ‘to draw’ -> infinitive verb,
(does not change)
2) PARTICIPLE :
Participles are non finite verbs , and are of two types.
a) PRESENT PARTICIPLE b) PAST PARTICIPLE
a)Present participles are made by adding ‘ing’
to the main verb.
FINITE VERB: A
finite verb changes with tense, number, person of the subject and forms an
essential part of the sentence.
INTRANSITIVE VERB : Intransitive verbs are verbs which can complete their meaning without an object. These are used in active
voice only and may take a complement.
If a verb does not require the addition of ed, d or t to form the past tense ,it is a strong verb,
which are also called irregular verbs. Eg: eaten, driven, spoken.
MAIN VERB :
Main verbs are base verbs which are used as full verbs .
Modals are auxiliary verbs which are used along with main verbs to form a
PERFORMATIVE VERB : Verbs like ‘request’, ‘forbid’, ‘inform’ , ‘promise’, ‘apologize’,
‘thank’ that clearly state the kind of
act being performed are called performative verb. It usually begins with ‘I’.
A type of verb which works like a phrase is called a phrasal verb. Eg: go up,
come down, put down.
QUASI-PASSIVE VERB : These verbs are active in form but passive in sense. Eg: Wheat sells
cheap.- Wheat is sold cheap.
Honey tastes sweet.- Honey is sweet when tasted.
REGULAR VERB :
All the above verbs end with ‘ed’, ‘d’ or ‘t’ in the past tense which was
changed from the present tense with or without any change of the side vowel.
These verbs are called regular verbs or weak verbs.
: A transitive verb is a word that
denotes an action which passes from the subject to the object: These verbs
cannot complete their meaning without object and can be used in active as well
as passive voice.
Work is worship. Lord Krishna in ‘Bhagvad Gita’ says, the purpose of life is ‘Karma’ or work. There is no greater worship than work. Lord Krishna says, “Do your work well, do not look for results.” As you do the work ,so will the results follow in its own course. It is expectations, which is the prime cause of grief. We are born to work- work for the betterment of mankind, and the world as a whole.
Work is work, and should not be discriminated upon. Every type of work is essential for our existence. Work should not be categorized as high or low. This type of categorization is existent in the under-developed and developing countries , where population is high and manual labour is cheap. In developed countries manual labour is held high regard and is well paid. This is also the prime cause of immigration from underdeveloped countries to the developed ones.
It is really
strange that people seem to look down upon some of the essential work as mean.
Cleaning, serving others, doing household chores are looked down as menial
work. Nobody is eager to do them. The truth is without these basic work, our
lives would be miserable. Therefore, we must change our mindset and understand
that no work is mean, and deserves equal respect.
We must do each and every work to the best of our capabilities and success is sure to follow. The secret of success is doing every work to perfection, irrespective of what we are doing. We must try to do the work so well that no one will be able to do it in a better manner. Every being must understand the dignity of labour, and make the world a better place to live in.
A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.It is a replacing word.
Eg: I, we, you,they, he,she,it.
TYPES OF PRONOUNS
Emphasizing or emphatic pronoun
Personal pronouns stand for three presons:
1st person – the person speaking ; I,we. 2nd person – person spoken to; you. 3rd person – the spoken of; He, she, it.
Different forms of personal pronoun:
NOMINATIVE : singular / plural 1st person – I / we 2nd person – you / you 3rd person – he,she,it / they
POSSESSIVE: singular / plural 1st person- my, mine / our,ours 2nd person- your / your 3rd person- his,her,hers,its / their,theirs
ACCUSATIVE singular / plural 1st person- me/ us 2nd person- you / you 3rd person- him,her/ them
Impersonal pronouns: It rains , or it snows. Here ‘it’ stands for rain or snow. It rains , means the rain(n) rains (v).
It is proper to use: My sister and I. You and he , instead of the other way round .
This , that, these ,those are Demonstrative pronouns as theyou take the place of a noun.
Eg: This is the Governor’s chair. That is a beautiful painting. Those are his test papers. These are Mick’s colour pencils. In these examples we find that the demonstratIves stand for the nouns mentioned in the sentence , hence they are replacing words or pronouns.
The demonstratives-this, that,these,those may also be used as adjectives. In case of Demonstrative adjectives , the demonstratives will qualify or describe the noun and not stand for it.
Eg. This car is mine. Those hills are beautiful. That house belongs to my friend. These pencils are broken.
Here we observe that the demonstrative adjectives are usually placed just before the noun and tell us something about the noun.
Reflexive and emphatic pronoun: myself, himself ,herself , yourself, yourselves , ourselves, themselves are reflexive our emphatic pronouns , depending on their usage.
Reflexive pronouns: In reflexive pronouns the doer of the action also becomes the receiver of the action. ie. The action is reflected back. The dog hid itself. They enjoyed themselves in the party. He hurt himself while playing. I saw myself in the mirror. In the above examples the doer is also the receiver of the action.
Emphatic or emphasising pronoun. In this case the emphatic pronouns are used for the sake of emphasis .
Eg: I myself saw him stealing the letter. He went to the management himself. She herself painted the wall. We set ourselves a difficult task. In the given examples the pronouns , myself, himself, herself, ourselves could have been avoided, but have been used for the sake of emphasis.
Indefinite pronouns : The pronouns which do not refer to any particular person or thing are called indefinite pronouns.
Eg; any, some, few, one, anybody, everybody, anyone, someone. Most of these words maybe used as adjective. Any student can solve this. Some water was drunk. If anyone wants this, let him come forth. Everybody thinks their burden is the heaviest.
Distributive pronouns. Distributive pronouns refer to persons or things one at a time. Therefore , they are always singular and followed by a singular verb. Eg: each, either , neither. At either end stood a policeman. Each of the boys received a gift. Neither of the answer is true .
Relative pronoun Relative pronoun is a pronoun which refers or relates to a noun mentioned before.(antecedent) I have found the book which I had lost. He is the man whom all praise. Blessed is hewho has found his work. This is the housethat Jack built.
Interrogative pronouns Pronouns used for asking questions are called interrogative pronouns. Eg: What is that? Whom do you want? Which is the house? Who is there? Who is used for persons only. Which is used for both persons and things. What is used for things only. in case of the sentence , What are you? …. I am a doctor. What stands for the profession doctor.
Time management is crucial for success , especially so for the present day students aspiring to get into premier institutions .
Time is same for everyone , everywhere and in any phase of history. It is known to everyone that time once lost is lost forever. It is the costliest thing that God has given for free. Achievers have achieved their success because they have been able to make optimum use of this vital free resource. The correct use of time creates miracles in ones life.
Techniques for time management :
Wake up early.
Plan your daily routine.
Set small achievable goals.
Stick to target and complete it.
Keep time for exercise and relaxation.
Compete with yourself.
Do not procrastinate.
Take a break after every 30 mins.
Sleep well .
Do not let work pile up.
Meditate to stay focused.
Do not get stressed.
Time management becomes easier when bigger overwhelming tasks, which tend to be procrastinated, are broken down into achievable goals. These goals need to be planned out and completed in time. For every goal reached you may reward yourself.
Reminders help in reducing undue stress , and help in achieving goals effectively . Delegating work also helps in getting more free time, which can be effectively used for purposeful work. Getting sufficient sleep helps in memory retention and boosts work efficiency.
Use these time management techniques and achieve goals with grit and determination. For its rightly said ,
A proper noun or special name is a noun which represents a unique thing (such as Paris, Saturn, Brian, or Sony), as opposed to a common noun, which represents a class of things (for example, city, planet, person or factory).
A common noun is a noun representing a person, place, or thing in a class or group. Unlike proper nouns, a common noun is not written in capital letters unless it either begins a sentence or appears in a title. Common nouns can be concrete (perceptible to the senses), abstract (involving general ideas or qualities), or collective (referring to a group or collection).
Examples: boys; city: rivers; animal.
Abstract nouns are words which name things that are not concrete. Your five physical senses cannot detect an abstract noun – you can’t see it, smell it, taste it, hear it, or touch it. In essence, an abstract noun is a quality, a concept, an idea, or maybe even an event.