History Repeats Itself

This is a popular saying which we all have heard, but unfortunately we have always failed to learn from history. We are lucky to have all the relevant information from the past to fall back upon. Like the pandemics in the past centuries. The wars and the famines that have devastated mankind in the past. Yet, we seem to be deliberately shutting our eyes and committing the same mistakes which led to the catastrophes. It is time to understand that one or two people cannot be allowed to ruin lives of many. It is possible to overule such orders which our heart knows to be wrong. Standing up for the right has its rewards, just like being accomplice to the wrong has its long term punishments. It is time to gear up for protecting nature which is heating up beyond limits. Let us pledge to learn something from the past and make the future better for future generations.

Photo by Pixabay

Articles

English Literature and Grammar

A card and an envelope.
Photo by rawpixel.com

Three words ‘a’ ‘an’ and ‘the’ are called
articles
.

Articles are of two types:

  1. Indefinite Articles
  2. Definite articles
  1. Indefinite Articles – ‘A’ and ‘An’ are weakened form of one and are
    called Indefinite Articles as they do not point out to any particular person or
    thing.
  2. Definite article – ‘The’ is called the definite article because it points out some definite
    or particular person or thing.

Use of Indefinite articles ‘A
and ‘An’:

Use of indefinite article ‘A’;

  • Before a word beginning with a consonant sound:

A boy, a pen

  • Before a word beginning with the sound ‘yu’

A
university, a union, a unicorn, a usage, a
European, a unicorn

  • Before a word beginning with the sound ‘wu’

A one-pound
note, a one-eyed…

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War Ruins — yaskhan

war zone death’s heartbeat regardless of spring people cry each other into bomb shelters sun crashes on bloodied walls some screams live in the throat some never survive to live reading the newsI feel the fear between broadcasts no deadlines for destruction where leaders buy time with destruction bloodied peace offering the dead become the […]

War Ruins — yaskhan

 REPORT WRITING

English Literature and Grammar

Reports –A report is a form of writing that presents information in an organised manner for a specific audience and purpose. It concisely presents facts and findings of an event that one has heard, investigated, or observed. Reports are written in specific formats.

Types of Reports

There are two types of reports:

  1. Newspaper
  2. Magazine

In CBSE class 12 ‘Report writing’ comes as a long answer type question in Section B of the question paper and carries – 05 marks in the writing section.

Prescribed word limit –120 – 150 words.

CBSE Report writing- Marking scheme:

Format – 1M

Content – 2M

Expression – 2M

Report writing questions are of three types:

  1. Descriptive
  2. Analytical
  3. Based on given hints or inputs

Tips for Report writing:

  1. Should be brief and follow specifications and format
  2. Should be well structured, logical and coherent
  3. Should be presented in a consistent orderly manner

View original post 1,251 more words

Why Writers Procrastinate

Lorraine Ambers

Hello, fellow creatives!

Ah, procrastination! Ever find yourself filing a tax return when you’re supposed to be fleshing out a character? Or maybe, clearing out the airing cupboard instead of starting the first round of edits? Yes, we’ve all been there. Suddenly, gardening is far more appealing than plodding along with a draft once you hit the middle of a project. Procrastination can be a slipper slope to us mere creatives.

Unfortunately, there is only one universal truth to writing and that is to sit down and get it done. And that’s all right in principle, but let’s slow things down, and take a look at why we procrastinate in the first place.

Ever wondered if there are certain individuals who are so driven and so focused, that they never let such forces come into play. Well, I’ve yet to find one person, let alone an artist, who hasn’t avoided…

View original post 226 more words

A Birdie Song

Photo by Joyston Judah

Knock, knock, knock on my window pane,
I wondered who could it be.
I opened my eyes to see a bird, from a nearby tree.
She knocked the pane as if to ask,
‘My dear, how do you do?’
She was pretty with a little turf and wings green and blue.
I told her I was fine and, asked how was she;
With rolling eyes and chirping sound,
She told something to me.
I understood that she meant good,
And wished her a happy day.
She flew away with her vibrant wings,
But left me feeling gay.
The little things that come across each moment of our lives,
Are priceless gifts as memories that helps us to thrive.

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Vistas English Should Wizard Hit Mommy? — NCERT SOLUTIONS

December 20, 2021 by Suman NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Vistas English Should Wizard Hit Mommy? QUESTIONS FROM TEXTBOOK SOLVED READ AND FIND OUTQ1.Who is Jo? How does she respond to her father’s story-telling?Ans. Jo is the shortened form of Joanne. She is the four year old daughter of Jack and Clare. For the last two years, her […]

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Vistas English Should Wizard Hit Mommy? — NCERT SOLUTIONS

Surviving the Storms of Life

Photo by Lachlan Ross

When storms of life growls and roars,
Blasting with all its might ;
Just bend a bit and let it raze,
Things with its thunder and light.

When it creates a havoc around,
With its fearsome thunderous sound;
The rigid ones it uproots first,
While the relaxed stick to the ground.

So let the dark times run its course,
And wait for the sun to rise;
Meanwhile build up your strength,
To take everyone by surprise.

For victory always garlands those,
 Who consistently strive;
Success loves the diligent and,
Accords the clever and wise.

 INVITATIONS AND REPLIES

 CBSE CLASS -12                

An invitation is a written or spoken request for inviting guests for attending some occasion or event like weddings, birthdays, inaugurations, annual functions, sports events etc.

Invitations are basically of two types: 1) Formal     and    2) Informal

Formal invitations may further be divided into i) Printed cards   and    ii) Formal letter of invitation.

  1. FORMAL INVITATION – two types
    • i)PRINTED CARDS – These written requests are generally designed and printed on invitation cards. and are for bulk invitations to relatives, neighbours, colleagues, guardians on social occasions. The name of invitee is not written on the card
    • ii)FORMAL LETTER OF INVITATION – e.g. To chief guest, judge for competition,
  2. INFORMAL LETTER OF INVITATION – for inviting few people like friends and relatives for small informal gatherings on private occasions. (e.g. small birthday party or celebration). Informal invitations are written in the format of informal letter.

   (Word limit – 50 words)

VALUE POINT FOR INVITATION :

Format       –      1mark

Content      –     1mark

Expression –     1 mark

Total           –      3 marks

                                                                      FORMAL INVITATION

TIPS FOR WRITING FORMAL INVITATION

  1. Must be enclosed in a box
  2. It is a single sentence presentation
  3. In line commas are allowed
  4. End line punctuations are skipped
  5. Answer the five W’s
    • WHO – is the host?
    • WHAT – is the occasion?
    • WHOM – for whom is the occasion?
    • WHEN – is the date, time?
    • WHERE – is it being held?
  6. Be brief and stick to the word limit (50 words)
  7. Write the invitation in 3rd  person
  8. It has to be polite and courteous
  9. Month to be written in words (1st January,20XX)
  10. Write in simple present tense          
  11.  No signatures are required
  12.  Name of VIP is included in VIP invitations
  13.  Name of invitee not written in invitation but on the envelope

Format of formal invitation

  • NAME OF THE HOST ISSUING THE INVITATION
  • Standard expression for invitation

(…. Cordially invite(s) , request the pleasure of your company, solicit your benign/gracious presence)

  • Purpose of occasion (reason  for invitation)
  • Name of honouree (people for whom the event is organized like marriage/ birthday)
  • Day, Date and time of the event
  • Venue of the event (complete address)
  • In case of VIP, name of chief guest /VIP
  • R.S.V.P  (Respondez S’il Vous Plait –i.e. respond if it pleases you)
  • Telephone or mobile number of the host
  • Address of the host
  • Special note if any. (e.g. Keep phone on silent mode / Please be seated by …)

EXAMPLES OF STANDARD EXPRESSIONS

cordially request the pleasure of your company

solicit the your gracious presence

request your benign presence

invite you to join

cordially invite you to

request the pleasure of your company

seek the pleasure of your company/ presence

cordially request the honour of your presence

FORMAT OF FORMAL INVITATION / PRINTED CARD

Each of the following is written in a separate line

1)  Name of host /hosts           
2) Formal phrase of invitation/ standard expression      
3)  Purpose  / Reason of invitation (wedding, birthday, inauguration, annual function)       
4)  Name of honouree (birthday person, groom, bride)      
5)  Day / date /time of  function or event       
6) Venue with complete address       
7) Complimentary close       
8) RSVP (Respond if it pleases you)       
9) Address of host       
10) Contact number  

FORMAL INVITATION

PRINTED CARD

Printed card invitations are written in simple present tense.  (no punctuations)

(Date of issuing invitations are not written)

Q. You are a student of Delhi Public School, Asansol. Design an invitation for its 30th Foundation Day. The Chief Justice, Asansol High Court is invited as the Chief Guest.

Formal invitation

Q2. You are a member of organizing committee of Sacred Heart Convent, Chandigarh. The school is organizing its annual function and the Education Minister of the state is going to be the Chief Guest. Design an invitation card to be sent to the invitees.

Q3. Mr. and Mrs. Sharma are organizing the 1st birthday celebration of their daughter Ananya. Design an invitation card for them in not more than 50 words.

   RESPONDING TO INVITATIONS

WRITING REPLIES – FORMAL AND INFORMAL

You have to write down reply to whatever is written in the question.

FORMAL REPLY

Formal replies are formal in tone and treatment. It must be brief, to the point, pleasant, polite and courteous.

TIPS FOR WRITING FORMAL REPLY

  1.  Write in brief
  2. Acknowledge the invitation express gratefulness
  3. Write thanks in third person
  4. Mention acceptance or regret (specify reason for not attending)
  5.  Use polite and formal language
  6. Give ‘Best wishes’ in case of decline
  7. Stick to word limit 50 words if word limit is not given

Q 1. Mr Devkumar Singh had received an invitation from Mr. Vivek Sharma for his daughter’s birthday celebration. Write a reply of his behalf.

Answer:- Accepting

  Mr. Devkumar Singh thanks Mr. Vivek Sharma for the kind invitation for his daughter’s birthday celebration. He is delighted to accept the invitation and confirms his presence.  

Answer: – Declining

  Mr. Devkumar Singh thanks Mr. Vivek Sharma for the kind invitation for his daughter’s birthday celebration, but regrets his inability to accept the same due to a prior engagement. However, he extends blessings for the little girl.

        INFORMAL REPLY

        Informal replies should be informal in tone and may include personal feelings in intimate style.

 TIPS FOR WRITING INFORMAL REPLY

  1. Write in brief
  2. Acknowledge the invitation express gratefulness
  3. Write thanks in first person
  4. Use second person to address the sender
  5. Mention acceptance or regret (specify reason for not attending)
  6.  Use friendly and informal language
  7. Give ‘Best wishes’ in case of decline
  8. Stick to word limit 50 words if word limit is not given.

Example

Q. You are Vivek. Your friend Hardik has invited you to celebrate Christmas party at his home. Draft a reply declining/ accepting his invitation.

 INFORMAL REPLIES – DECLINING

10. Park Avenue

Kolkata -4

 20th December, 20XX

 Dear Hardik

 I am happy to receive your invitation for the Christmas Party on 25th December. 20XX at 7:00 pm at your home. I regret to inform you that I would not be to join the celebrations due to some prior engagements. Merry Christmas and best wishes for you and your family.

Yours affectionately

Vivek   

INFORMAL REPLY- ACCEPTING

10. Park Avenue

Kolkata -4

 20th December, 20XX

 Dear Hardik

 I am happy to receive your invitation for the Christmas Party on 25th December. 20XX at 7:00 pm. I am glad to inform you that I would be delighted to join the party at the specified time. Looking forward towards an enjoyable evening with old friends.

Yours affectionately

Vivek   

Q1. You are Sujaya Hajra of A.G Church School, Raipur. You have been invited by the Principal of St. Vincent School, Raipur to act as one of the judges at a debate Contest to be held on 10th  February, 20XX. But you are unable to accept this invitation due to a previous engagement. Write a formal reply to the Principal expressing your inability to accept the invitation.

Refusal

A.G. Church School

Raipur

5th February, 20XX

The Principal

St. Vincent School

Raipur

Sub : Reply to invitation

Madam

I really feel a great honour on being invited to act one of the judges at a debate contest to be held on 10th  February, 20XX in your school. I regret to inform that I am unable to accept this invitation due to my previous engagement. I send my good wishes for the success of the Contest.

Yours truly

Sujaya Hajra

Q2 . You are Sujaya Hajra of A.G Church School, Raipur. You have been invited by the Principal of St. Vincent School, Raipur to act as one of the judges at a debate Contest to be held on 10th  February, 20XX. Write an formal reply to the Principal accepting the invitation.

Acceptance

A.G. Church School

Raipur

5th February, 20XX

The Principal

St. Vincent School

Raipur

Sub : Reply to invitation

Madam

I really feel a great honour on being invited to act one of the judges at the debate contest to be held on 10th February, 20XX in your school. I confirm my presence at the programme and look forward to the event.

Yours truly

Sujaya Hajra

 FORMAL LETTER OF INVITATION

FORMAT – FORMAL INVITATION LETTER

Sender’s Address

Date (of writing the invitation)

Receiver’s address

Subject

Salutation

Body of letter

Complimentary close

Name

_____________________________________________________________

EXAMPLE OF FORMAL LETTER OF INVITATION

Q. St. Patrick’s School , Asansol organizing an Inter–School Debate Competition at the city level. Write a letter to Mr. Sukumar Sen HOD English, Burdwan University, inviting him to be the judge for this competition. You are Samar/ Samita, Secretary of Literary Club of your school.

St. Patrick’s School

 Asansol

18th December, 20XX

Mr. Sukumar Sen

Head of English Department

Burdwan University

Subject: Invitation to judge the debate competition.

Sir

The Literary Club of our School is organizing ‘City Level Inter-School Debate Competition’ on  5th January, 20XX from 11 am in our school auditorium. The topic of the debate is “Technology does more harm than good”.

We extend a cordial invitation to you to be the judge for this competition and motivate the participants with your guidance.

We look forward to your kind consent. Please reply at your earliest convenience.

Yours sincerely

Samita

Secretary, Literary Club

REPLY TO INVITATION 

Q.3.  Write a reply on behalf of Mr. Sukumar Sen.

Ans.  ACCEPTING

Department of English

Burdwan University

20th December, 20XX

Secretary

Literary Club

St. Patricks School, Asansol

Subject: Reply to invitation

Madam

I am glad to have received your invitation to judge the City Level Inter-House Debate Competition. It will be my pleasure to be a part of this prestigious event, where I’ll get an opportunity to interact with the young minds. I confirm my presence for the event. Looking forward to the eventful day.

Yours sincerely

Sukumar Sen

Ans.  DECLINING

Department of English

Burdwan University

20th December, 20XX

Secretary

Literary Club

St. Patricks School, Asansol

Subject: Reply to invitation

Madam

I am glad to have received your invitation to judge the City Level Inter-House Debate Competition. I express my thanks for this invitation, but regret my inability to attend the event due to some prior engagement.

I convey my best wishes for the success of the programme.

Yours sincerely

Sukumar Sen

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

INFORMAL LETTER OF INVITATION

Format of INFORMAL INVITATION LETTER

Sender’s Address

Date (of writing the invitation)

Salutation

Body of letter- Name of Event

Complimentary close

Subscription

Writer’s name,

Contact no.

____________________________________________________________________________

Tone of informal invitation is friendly and informal, you may change tenses if required.

Q. Rohit has got success in NEET 20XX. He wants to celebrate his admission to Shivaji Medical College, Nagpur, by throwing a party for his friends. Write an informal invitation, giving details of date, time and venue. Do not exceed 50 words.

Answer.

 House no. – 70

Krishnavihar Colony

Raigarh

20th January, 20XX

Dear Friend

You will be glad to learn that I have secured 124th Rank in NEET 20XX and have got admission in Shivaji Medical College, Nagpur. I want to share my happiness and celebrate this success with my old friends on 28th January. 20XX from 7:00 pm at Hotel Sunrise, Station Road, Raigarh.

Please join the celebration and be a part of my happiness.

Yours

Rohit

REPLY TO INFORMAL INVITATION

Q. You are Sambhav. Write an informal reply to Rohits’s invitation.

ACCEPTING

4/D Shivajinagar

Raigarh

22nd January. 20XX

Dear Rohit

I am delighted to know of your success in NEET and congratulate you for achieving such an excellent rank. It would be my pleasure to join you in your celebrations. Looking forward to seeing you, and our old friends soon.

Yours

Sambhav

DECLINING

4/D Shivajinagar

Raigarh

22nd January. 20XX

Dear Rohit

I am delighted to know of your success in NEET and congratulate you for achieving such an excellent rank. I regret to inform you that I would not be able to join you in your celebration due to some prior engagement. Wishing you all the best for your future.

Yours

Sambhav

QUESTION BANK

Q1. Your school is hosting CBSE inter-school Basketball Championship for the East Zone. Send an invitation to Mrs. Deepika Kumari , National Level Archer , to be the Chief Guest for its closing ceremony.

Q2. You are Arjun / Anshuma.  St. Vincient School, Rupar . You have been invited to participate in an inter-school painting competition organized by the Cultural Club of your city. As the General Secretary of the Painting Club of your school, respond to the invitation.

(letter format)