CONJUNCTIONS

Apples, grapes and bananas are good for health.

A conjunction is a word which joins words, phrases or clauses. Conjunctions may also be called joining words.

Two and two makes four.

He will pass if he works hard.

Did you know that she has won the competition?

I cannot see how she can win.

TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS

Conjunctions are mainly of two types:

  1. Coordinating conjunctions
  2. Subordinating conjunctions

The third subtype is Correlative conjunctions.

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Coordinating conjunctions are words which connect units of equal status and function (ie. Coordinate or independent clauses)

{Independent clause – a part of a sentence that makes complete sense}

Kamal and Dave are good friends.

She reached the station in time but the train was late.

[for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (Fanboys)]are the main coordinating conjunctions. Some other  conjunctions are [ therefore, too,  either, , neither, however, nevertheless, so, then]

Coordinating conjunctions can be sub divided into four types.

  1. Cumulative orCopulative –   and, also, too, as well as, both…and

(These words merely add one statement to another)

I worked for a long time and did not rest.

  1. Alternative or  Disjunctiveeither…or, neither…nor.

(These words express a choice between two alternatives)

Either he is crazy or he is a genius.

  1. Adversative or Conjunctive Adverbsstill, yet, only, but, however, nevertheless, moreover, furthermore, otherwise, finally, consequently

(These words express opposition or contrast between two statements)

The tortoise was slow; however, he won the race.

  1. Illative  – therefore, for , so, then, so…then

(These words express an inference)

He must have neglected his studies; for he failed.

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Subordinating conjunctions connect subordinate or dependent clauses in a sentence.

{ Dependent clause – part of a sentence that does not make complete sense on its own. It depends on the main clause to complete its sense.}

He failed to catch the train because he was late.

I cannot leave the shop until he comes.

[after, although, as , as if, as soon as, because, before, ere, if, how, like,  since, so that, that, than, till, though, unless, until, where, when , while, whither, why,] are subordinating conjunctions.

Subordinating conjunctions may be divided into different groups according to their meaning.

  1. Cause or Reasonbecause, as, since

As she was not at home, I came back.

  1. Conditionprovided, supposing, unless, as, if, whether

I will stay at home if it rains.

  1. Comparisonthat, as…as

He is as tall as his father.

  1. Contrastthough, although, however, even if

She may kill me, yet I will trust her.

  • Purposein order that, so that, that, lest

Oly practises hard so that she could win the prize.

  • Result or effect so…that

Sam sings so loudly that he never needs a microphone.

  • Time  – after , before, as soon as, as long as, since, till, until, while

He completed his work before he left.

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

Correlative conjunctions are conjunctions used in pairs.

As (so)….as  –  He is as brave as a lion.

 Both… and  –  She is both a writer and a soldier.

Either…or Either you word hard or fail.

Neither…norNeither Ron nor Rick agreed to do the shopping.

No sooner… than –  No sooner did she go out than it began to rain.

Such…as Such teachers as those inspiring students deserve respect.

Scarcely/ Hardly…when  –  I had scarcely began to read when the lights went off.

The same… as – Robert gets the same amount as his friend Bob.

IDENTIFICATION OF CONJUNCTIONS

Conjunctions, which merely join two parts of sentences must be distinguished from Relative Pronouns, Relative Adverbs and Prepositions, which also connect words and act as linkers but do more than merely joining sentences.

This is the masterpiece that Picasso painted. (Relative Pronoun)

Here that refers to the masterpiece and acts as a pronoun.

This is the place where Shakespeare was born. (Relative Adverb)

Here where modifies the verb was born and joins the two parts of the sentence.

Dina and Mina went to the market. (Conjunction)

Here and simply joins two parts of the sentence and does no other work.

RULES REGARDING PUNCTUATING CONJUNCTIONS.

Rule 1. In case of sentences having more than two words or phrases put comma after each item except the last one.

I like fish, meat, eggs and sweet.

Rule2. In case of only two words or phrases no comma.

He often visits orphanages and old age homes.

Rule 3. I case of two coordinating clauses joined by a conjunction, put comma after the first independent clause just before the conjunction.

Independent clause, conjunction independent clause.

I’m not very hungry, so I will not eat now.

Rule 4. In case of subordinating conjunctions put comma after the dependent clause only if it is followed by the independent clause.

Dependent clause,subordinating conjunction independent clause.

Independent clause subordinating conjunction dependent clause.

After her results, she joined the army. { She joined the army after her results.(no comma)}

Rule 5. In case of conjunctive adverbs, put semi colon (;) after the first independent clause and a comma (,) after the conjunction, just before the second independent clause.  

Independent clause; conjunctive adverb, independent clause.

He went to the station; however, he failed to catch the train.

Make hay while the sun shines.

Comments regarding improvements and modifications would be highly appreciated.

References : High school English Grammar; New Madhyamik Grammar and composition.

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How to plan and build a home library

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HOMAGE TO THE NOBLE SOULS

“The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be kindled.”
Plutarch

      

The mind is eternal;
And lives forever…..
For the thoughts it gave birth to
When it was alive.

Great people leave their impressions,
In the minds of others.
For their goodness,
For their uniqueness.

Even when they leave their body;
People bow down to them,
Of their own free will.
Respect automatically flows.

It’s thoughts, and the deeds….
Which are the outcome of the thoughts,
That make up our lives.
Which ends with a bang or a hiss.

Losing a great mind;
Is a loss to humanity.
I bow down to such mind,s
And pray for everlasting peace of their  souls.

“And such too is the grandeur of the dooms
We have imagined for the mighty dead;
All lovely tales that we have heard or read;
An endless fountain of immortal drink,
Pouring unto us from the heaven’s brink.”
John Keats

10 Life Skills Our Kids Need — BEFORE College

bleuwater

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Monsoon

The grey sky turn the trees emerald green.

The sky is grey and expectant;
Soon it will start raining again.
Looking through the window,
I wait for the showers to begin;
There’s a dull ache in the heart,
For all that could have been.

Every cloud has a silver lining ,
We all know the proverb.
Sometimes I want to add,
Every day is followed by night;
And so the circle continues,
Irrespective of the inhabitants,
Whose lives revolved around selves.

The drizzle has gathered momentum,
It is raining like there is no tomorrow.
Every drop hurling down hard;
Seems to be bursting out loud,
Bringing out grief, anger, frustration;
That had gathered over time.

The shower changes to a soft drizzle,
The pent up emotions spent.
The grey sky gives way to sunshine,
Everything is once more bright.
The sky breaks into laughter,
A child oblivious of all suffering.

ADVERBS

She is writing neatly,

An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

We may say that it adds to the meaning of a verb, adjective or an adverb.

1)Philip runs quickly.

In this sentence the adverb quickly modifies the verb runs. It tells us about the manner in which Philip runs.

2) This is a very sweet apple. In this sentence the adverb very modifies the adjective sweet. It tells us to what degree the apple is sweet.

3) Sharah sings quite sweetly. In this sentence the adverb quite modifies the adverb sweetly. It tells us how far or to what extent she sings sweetly.

Types of adverb:

i) Adverbs of Manner

ii) Adverbs of Time

iii) Adverbs of Place

iv) Adverbs of Frequency

v) Adverbs of Degree or Quantity

vi) Adverbs of Reason

vii) Adverbs of Affirmation or Negation

viii) Adverbs of Certainty

ix) Relative adverbs

x) Interrogative adverbs

xii) Focusing Adverbs

1) ADVERBS OF MANNER

  Adverb of Manner (how-adverbs) tells us how or in what manner an action is done.

 The soldiers fought bravely.

  He did it manually.

  The story is well written.

  She was agreeably disappointed.

  Thus he succeeded.

[This class includes nearly all those Adverbs which are derived from Adjectives and end in –ly.]

2) ADVERBS OF PLACE

Adverb of place (where adverbs) show where or at what place the action is done.

The meeting was held here.

Go there.

The doctor is out.

Is Mr John within?

Walk backward.

Stop here.

They went upstairs.

3) ADVERBS OF TIME

Adverb of time (when-adverb) tells us when or at what time an action is done.

It rained yesterday.

The guests will arrive soon.

The boy arrived late in class.

Vinni comes here daily.

Wasted time never returns.

Mr. Smith formerly lived here.

4) ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

An adverb of frequency (How often- adverb) tells us how often or how frequently an action is done.

He visits us daily.

She spoke to me twice.

They often play cricket.

He seldom comes here.

She always cooks dinner.

I have not seen him once.

She frequently comes late.

The messenger came again.

 5) ADVERBS OF DEGREE OR QUANTITY

These adverbs (how much or to what degree- adverbs) tells us to what extent an action is done.

I fully agree with you.

He was too careless.

The glass is almost full.

They treated him most cruelly.

He is good enough for my purpose.

She was altogether mistaken.

Things are no better now.

She sings pretty well.

I am rather busy.

You are quite wrong.

I am so glad.

We are fully prepared.

You are partly correct.

 6) ADVERBS OF REASON

Adverb of reason (why-adverb) tells us why an action has taken place.

She wanted to buy a pen therefore she went out.

He is sick hence unable to go to school.

The work was not done in time consequently the project failed.

7) ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION OR NEGATION

These adverbs affirm or negate an action.(yes, no, surely, perhaps)

You are surely mistaken.

He has certainly done it.

I do not know him.

He is not busy.

I have not done it.

‘Yes’ and ‘No’ are generally classified as adverbs. They are in fact substitutes for a whole sentence, by a process where words once used are understood as repeated. This process is called ellipsis.

Q: Have you reached there?

A: Yes.( I have reached.)

Q: Are you feeling sick?

A: No. (I am not feeling sick.)

8) ADVERBS OF CERTAINTY

Adverb of certainty (how sure-adverbs) tells us how sure we are of something.

It will probably rain tomorrow.

Perhaps the train is late.

She is definitely late.

 9) RELATIVE ADVERBS

 Relative adverbs like relative pronouns introduce adjective clause.

Tell them the reason why you lied.

I know the street where she lives.

Do you know when the chief guest will arrive?

10) INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS

An interrogative adverb not only modifies some words but begins a question.

When will he come? (Time)

How many people are there? (number)

How far must we travel? (degree)

Why was he upset? (reason)

Where is the market? (place)

11) FOCUSING ADVERBS

These adverbs ‘point to’ one part of a clause.

We are only going for a day.

He has even gone to the President.

The crowd consisted of mainly students.

According to their usage adverbs are divided in to three classes.

1)Simple adverbs. – You are quite right.

2) Interrogative adverbs – Why are you late?

3) Relative adverbs –I remember the house where I was born.

Formation of adverbs:

From the viewpoint of formation . Adverbs may be divided into four categories.

1) Simple formation- fast, very, too

2) Derivative ( formed by adding ‘ly’ suffix.) – slowly, usually, gracefully

3) Compound ( formed by joining two words) – somewhere -> some + where, anywhere -> any+where

4) Composite (adverbials or phrases working as adverbs)- at last, on foot, at least.

Forms of adverbs

Some words are used both as adverbs and adjectives in the same form.

ADJECTIVES                          ADVERBS

She came by the back entrance.                  She came back.

She faced little problem while trekking.                    She is little known outside U.S.

It was a hard sum.                                                      He works hard to earn money.

She is the best teacher.                                               She behaves best in the class.

I am an early riser.                                                       He rises early.

He is the only child.                                                     You can only guess.

Comparison of adverbs

Some adverbs like adjectives have three degrees of comparison.

  Positive   Comparative  Superlative

Fast           Faster            Fastest Long          longer              longest  hard         harder          hardest Soon          sooner      soonest           Swiftly  moreswiftly  mostswiftly   Skillfully more skillfully most skillfully Early         earlier                 earliest

Position of Adverbs

i) Adverbs of Manner are usually placed after the verb or object if there is one:

  He is walking slowly

The boy is running fast.

  She writes letters well.

  He does his work carefully.

ii) Adverb phrases of place and time are also placed after the verb or object if any.

  She will go there.

  He searched everywhere.

  She met me yesterday.

They are going to Paris next month.

iii) In case of two or more adverbs. The normal order is – Adverb of manner; Adverb of place;  

Adverb of time.

We should go there tomorrow evening.

She danced beautifully at the function last evening.

iv) Adverbs of frequency are normally put between the subject and the verb.

 He never goes to the zoo.

 I quite agree with you.

 She has never seen a lion.

 We usually go to sleep by nine.

v) The verb enough is placed before the word it modifies.

 He was rash enough to drive fast.

 She sang loud enough to be heard by all.

vi) The word only is usually placed after the word it modifies.

 I worked only four hours.

 She did only two sums.

However in spoken English only is placed before the word it modifies.

 She only worked two sums.

 I only slept for three hours.

Saving the Shade


“I will cut the mango tree, let me see who dares to stop me.” said Sarkar fuming with rage. “Never! It’s our mango tree, it belongs to the village,” retorted Vipin shaking his fingers at Binoy. The conflict had been going on for quite some time. It all started when Binoy Sarkar’s father died leaving 7 acres of land to be divided between two brothers.  Sujoy, the elder brother was a good ten years older than him. He had requested Binoy to give him 3 acres of land which was near the village. Binoy was greatly satisfied to get the larger amount of land, far away from the village, with a clump of trees at the centre.
Binoy wanted to cut down the clump of trees which occupied about ½ an acre of land, and increase his cultivable land. It would ensure more crops and a greater income.  The problem was the clump of trees was the only place where farmers could rest in shade and have their lunch.  It was an indispensable place for the entire village. The huge mango tree that stood along with the other jamun and guava trees had been providing farmers with its delicious mangoes for several generations. The ripe mangoes would spread its aroma through the summer, creating a happy mood for all. The cool shade under the green canopy was a solace to the tired souls after grinding work under the merciless sun.
The very idea of endless fields without a trace of shade created a dread in the hearts of the village farmers. Each of them spoke to Binoy, requesting him to leave the cluster of trees alone, so that villagers could continue to enjoy the cool comfort of the shade during the months that they cultivated. But Binoy was adamant, he refused to listen to any kind of advice. His mind was completely engrossed with the fanciful thoughts of various methods in which he could spend the money, which he would get after selling the wood.

The famers are our providers, they deserve a lot of respect.


The villagers decided to go to the village council to solve the problem. The village head Parashuram Singh was old and wise. He was supposed to be above ninety, but looked like a sixty year old. Some of the village elders presumed that he could be well over 100, as none of them remembered him as a boy. He had been solving problems of the villagers as long as they could remember. So, the farmers who had their fields around the area  shaded by the trees, took their friends and families along with them, for making an appeal against Binoy, to stop him from cutting the trees. ‘Dada ji,’ said Malay,  ‘You have seen the clump of trees at the centre of the fields since your birth. Most of us were not even born at that time. The trees have been a part of the villager’s lives for generations.  None of our ancestors had this ridiculous idea of chopping off the fruit bearing trees for profit.

Now Binoy is making plans to sell the trees and use the land for cultivation.’ Binoy, who was sitting cross legged in front of the crowd,  was defensive, ‘I don’t see anything wrong in it. I have inherited the land and have full rights to do as I like with it.’

“But we have our food and take rest there in between our work. If the shade is destroyed, it would mean going back to our homes for lunch, it would be an unnessary waste of time and money,” Malay’s brother Nilay argued.

‘Ah! I do have a solution to the problem ,” grinned Binoy, pointing his finger to the villagers,  “You all can pool in slots of land, and grow your fruit trees in it. That way you would have as much shade and fruit as you want.” He smirked at the look of the villagers, who appeared stupefied.

Headman Parashuram looked at him calmly, then he looked at the villagers and said, “ Binoy has a point here,  just because you have been using the shady patch for years; doesn’t mean that you have the right to use it forever, you all have your own land and can plant your own shady patch if you want to enjoy the fruits and shade.”

Binoy looked pleased with the judgement and displayed a broad grin. He had achieved his aim. Now no one could stop him from increasing his land and his yield.

The villagers looked aghast. They had not expected their village head to give such a ruling, it was totally against the head man’s nature to give a wrong judgement. Parasuram put up his hand for silence, as the villagers started to murmur amongst themselves. He then continued slowly in a subdued voice, “However till the trees grow up , strong and big, Binoy will not cut his clump of trees.  He will also make personal arrangements for irrigating his own fields, as he is not a believer of community services. He will henceforth not have access to the water from any pond or well that does not belong to him,” he concluded.

Society depends on contribution of every individual.

 Binoy looked stunned at the head man’s ruling. He knew from the sternness in the headman’s voice, that he and his family would soon be ostracized, if he went against the head man’s words. He realised that each one of them was dependent on the other for leading a comfortable life. Personal greed on the part of any one of them would ruin the structure of the society.

The villagers felt happy with the headman’s ruling. He was indeed a wise old man who made them realise that they must live unitedly and work for the greater good of the people.

“Binoy, you may cut the clump of trees that you have inherited but did not plant. But you must also be ready to take in the pains that will follow the gains which you will reap.” said the head man’s in a softer tone.

“Dada ji, It was blind greed that made me think of only my profits , without considering the effects it would have on others. Now, I understand that as others are dependent on me for the shade, so am I dependent on them for many things. I will not cut the trees and everyone is welcome to enjoy the fruits and the shade as they have always enjoyed.” said Binoy apologetically.

The villagers clapped when Binoy finished his speech.  Malay and Nilay, who were his childhood friends gave him a hug and they all touched Parashuram’s feet for his blessings. The headman smiled and blessed them. “Greed is the root of all evil” he said, “never let greed overcome your sense of right and wrong. No matter how much you have, you will always want more. There is no end to one’s wants, so keep your feet on the ground and never do things that may harm others.” So saying he got up from his charpoy, and the gathering dispersed. Contentment once again reigned in the hearts of the villagers, and peaceful atmosphere returned.

Trees keep the environment cool. They ask for nothing, except for the right to live. Is it too much to give?

Happiness and contenment comes from giving. Let us learn from the tree which provides shade for free.