FUTURE TENSE

                                             

SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

Learning about the Future Tense
Let’s talk about the Future. Photo by Ali Pazani

The simple Future tense is used to indicate an action that will take place in the future.

The guests will soon be here.

We shall go to Colorado next week.

Who will help me set the dinner?

They will attack at dawn.

Tomorrow will be Thursday.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + will/shall +V1 + Object I shall like ice-cream.
InterrogativeWill/shall + Subject + V1 + Object?Shall  I like ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + will/shall+ not + V1 + Object I shall not like ice-cream.

Situational use

  1. To express an action that will take place in the future – I shall go there tomorrow.
  2. With clauses of condition and time – He will miss the train unless he drives fast.
  3. For announcing a decision– I will buy a new laptop.
  4. For expressing hopes, expectations, promises – I think she will be very successful one day.
  5. For giving instructions through questions – Will you be quiet?
  6. With actions associated with adverbial phrases of a future time – My father will be sixty in March.

[ We use ‘shall’ with ‘I’ and ‘we’ and ‘ will’ with ‘ I, you, we, he, she, it, they’]

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

 Future Continuous tense is used to indicate some action that will be going on at some point of time in the future.

I shall be reading a book in the evening.

I wonder what she will be doing tomorrow.

Her children will be waiting to greet her at the airport.

We shall be celebrating her birthday when she returns home.

We shall be travelling all night.

When will you be visiting again?

By this time tomorrow, I shall be lying on the beach in Hawai.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + will/shall + be + V4(-ing form of verb) + Object I will be eating ice-cream.
InterrogativeWill/shall + Subject+ be + V4 + Object?Will I be eating ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + will/shall + not+ be + V4 + Object I will not be eating ice-cream.

Situational use

  1. For expressing events in progress in the future – I shall be seeing you tomorrow at this time.
  2. For predicting the present – Don’t disturb-he will be sleeping now.
  3. For predicting a natural course of events – The train will be arriving soon.
  4. For polite inquiries Will you be staying here for a few days?
  5. For expressing pre-decided future plans – I am going to Rome on Sunday.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

Future Perfect tense is used to indicate the completion of action by a certain time in the future.

By this time next year he will have taken his university degree.

I shall have finished this novel by tomorrow.

In August he will have stayed here for two years.

He will have submitted his project by next month.

The builders will have completed their work by Tuesday.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + will/shall + have + V3(past participle) + Object I shall have eaten ice-cream.
InterrogativeWill/shall + Subject+ have + V3 + Object? Will I have eaten ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + will +not + have + V3 + Object I will not have eaten ice-cream.

Situational use

  1. To indicate actions that will be completed before a certain time in the future – I shall have finished my homework by 8 o’clock.
  2. For predicting the present – He will have left by now.
  3. For expressing past in the future – Tomorrow he will have been 80.

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 

Future Perfect Continuous Tense indicates an action represented as being in progress over a period of time that will end in the future.

He will have been making preparations for his wedding for two months by July.

You will have been learning Sanskrit for two years by next month.

They will have been living in Iran for three years by the end of the year.

I shall have been teaching you for half an hour by the time this lesson ends.

They will have been playing for two hours by the time you reach there.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + will/shall + have + been + V4(-ing form of verb) + ObjI will have been working for an hour by then.
InterrogativeWill/shall + Subject+ have + been + V4 + Object?Will I have been working for an hour by then?
NegativeSubject + will/shall+ not +been+ V4 + ObjectI will not have been running for an hour by then.

Situational use

  1. To indicate actions that will continue and will be finished sometime in future– He will have been teaching here for ten years by April.

Other ways to Express Future Tense

Future tense can be expressed in several other ways:

  1. Simple Present Tense – He retires next month.
  2. Present Continuous Tense – I am inviting them next week.
  3. Be + about to – The plane is about to land.
  4. Be + going to –  He is going to be a doctor.
  5. Be + (infinitive) verb – The President is to visit China next week.

FUTURE TENSE OF INTENTION – ‘Going to

‘Going to’ is used to indicate:

  • Intention

We are going to spend our holidays in Kashmir this summer.

I’m going to have my own way.

When are you going to finish your homework?

They are going to sow pulses this year.

We are going to have a new car soon.

  • To state something that is probable or likely to happen.

Look out! The ice beneath you is going to crack.

There is going to be a recession this year.

How long is this pandemic going to continue?

It is going to rain tonight.

He is running fast, he is going to win.

  • For stating future actions without reference to external circumstances.

I am going to tell you a story.

She is going to have a baby. 

He is going to be a chef.

  • For stating past events which was past at that moment.

When he found her, she was going to drown.

The last time we met you were going to open a start up.

[ Always use the root form of the verb with- going to:  Going to + V1:     Going to + eat]

Present, Past and Future went to a bar. It was Tense.
Photo by Tomas Ryant

Que Sera Sera/ Whatever will be, will be/ The future is not ours to see/ Que Sera Sera/ Whatever will be, will be.

Doris Day

PAST TENSE

Photo by Aphiwat chuangchoem on Pexels.com

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

Lord Jesus preached the message of peace.

The police caught the thief red-handed.

Rabindranath wrote Gitanjali.

I spoke to him yesterday.

Did you visit your grandma?

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + V2 + Object I liked ice-cream.
InterrogativeDid + Subject + V1 + Object?Did I like ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + did not + V1 + Object I did not like ice-cream.

Situational Use:

  1. To express a habitual actions of the past (always, never, often, seldom, generally, usually are used in these sentences)   – He generally came here everyday.
  2. To express an event/ actions completed in the past- I bought some apples yesterday.
  3. To express an action going on the time stated– While Krishna played the flute, Radha danced.
  4. Narrating events in the past – Once there lived a beautiful princess.
  5. For short but quickly finished events – I spent my childhood in India.
  6. For State verbs in the Past – Napoleon became the King.
  7. For second conditionals – If he worked hard, he could pass.
  8. For wishes – I wish I knew.
  9. For recommendations – It is time we went home.

FUNCTIONAL USE

  1. Story Telling – One fine day the king decided to go for a hunt.
  2. Narrating past events – When I was two, I was kidnapped.

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE 

I was painting a basket.

She was looking ill.

They were watching T.V. all the time.

They were talking loudly.

The students were not listening to the teacher.

You were watching TV at that time.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + was/ were + V4(-ing form of verb) + Object I was eating ice-cream.
InterrogativeWas/ were + Subject + V4 + Object?Was I eating ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + was/ were + not + V4 + Object I was not eating ice-cream.

Situational Use:

  1. To express an action going in the past. – He was playing piano.
  2. To express repeated or habitual action in the past  – He was always bullying others.
  3. To indicate two simultaneous actions. –  He was cooking while she was reading.
  4. To indicate acts of incompletion – I was painting my house this morning.
  5. To indicate background in the past – I was working as an intern when I met him.
  6. To indicate distancing /less definite things–I was wondering when the economy will revive.
  7. To indicate gradual development of events – He was getting bored.

( when a verb ends with ‘e’ we remove ‘e’ and add ‘ing’. – come – coming:

when a verb ends with ‘ie’ we remove ‘ie’ and add ‘y’. – tie – tying:

when a verb ends with a consonant except ‘r’, w, y’  with a vowel before it we add the consonant twice. – cut – cutting)

PAST PERFECT TENSE

The train had left before we had reached the station.

As soon as he had finished his speech, the people cheered.

The car had crashed by the time the driver realised that it was skidding.

He had broken his pencil before the exam ended.

I had lived there for ten years before moving to this town.

I had locked the door before I left the room.

I had trusted him before he cheated me.

I had reached home before the rain started.

Where had he been at that time?

He had opened the window before going to sleep.

I wish I had accepted the offer.

I told her that I had finished.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + had + V3(past participle) + Object I had eaten ice-cream.
InterrogativeHad + Subject + V3 + Object? Had I eaten ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + had + V3 + Object I had not eaten ice-cream.

Situational Use:

  1. To express an action that has been completed before another action began. – The thief had fled before the police arrived.
  2. To express an unfulfilled wish in the past. – I wish you had told me the truth.
  3. To express things that happened before thinking or saying – He thought that I had left.
  4. In sentences with ‘after’, ‘when’, ‘as soon as’, ‘ no sooner than’ – No sooner had the teacher left than the boys began shouting.

PAST  PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 

I had been writing for two hours by then.

She had been visiting her for five months when we met.

She had been waiting for him for an hour when he came in.

They had been living here for six years by then.

She had been working on that novel for about eight years.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject +had+ been + V4(-ing form of verb) + ObjI had been running for an hour by then.
InterrogativeHad + Subject+ been + V4 + Object?Had I been running for an hour by then?
NegativeSubject + had+ not +been+ V4 + ObjectI had not been running for an hour by then.

Situational use

  1. To express the duration of action upto a certain time in the past – Everything had been going according to our plan.
  2. For focussing on the ongoing action – I had been reading in the garden.
  3. For expressing continuations from the past – At that time we had been living there for about a year.
  4. For expressing actions which are incomplete – I had been watching a lot of movies when I got that idea.

The Past time is expressed in six different ways according to its need.

  1. Simple Past  – I wrote an essay.
  2. Past Continuous – I was writing an essay.
  3. Past Perfect  – I had written an essay.
  4. Past Perfect Continuous – I had been writing an essay.
  5. Present Perfect – He has written a novel.
  6. Present Perfect Continuous – You have been crying.