Types of sentences based on structure.

It is a beautiful painting. (simple sentence)
Photo by Amber Lamoreaux

Sentence is the largest structural unit of a language. Sentences can be divided into three basic categories depending on its grammatical structure, i.e. the position and requirement of subject, verb etc.

  1. Simple Sentence
  2. Complex Sentence and
  3. Compound Sentence

Simple Sentence

 A simple sentence has one main clause. It has only one subject and one finite verb.

He is an artist.

In this sentence ‘he’ is the only subject, and ‘is’ the only finite verb.

( Finite verb – a verb that changes with person, number and tense. )

I like cars.                                              I like to drive cars.

She likes cars.                                      She likes to drive cars.

(I Like – He likes – finite verb)           (to drive – non finite verb)

Complex sentence

A sentence containing one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses is called a complex sentence.

They rested when evening came.

As the boxers advanced into the ring, the people said that they would not allow them to fight.

The people said. (main clause)

As the boxers advanced into the ring. (subordinate clause)

That they would not allow them to fight. (subordinate clause)

We may add more subordinate clauses (dependent clause) to make it more complex.

Adding  1 subordinate clause to the main clause.

Ronny went to school, though he did not want to.

Adding  2 subordinate clauses to the main clause.

Though Ronny went to school, he did not want to go, as he had not done his homework.

Adding  3 subordinate clauses to the main clause.

Though Ronny went to school, he did not want to go, as he had not done his homework and he will get punished.

Compound Sentence

A compound sentence contains two main clauses or independent clauses joined by a co-ordinating linker or conjunction.

He tried hard but he did not succeed.

This sentence consists of two independent clauses joined by a conjunction.

He tried hard. ( but)

He did not succeed.

Night came on and rain fell heavily and we all got wet.

This sentence consists of three independent clauses joined by conjunctions.

Night came on. (and)

Rain fell heavily. (and)

We all got wet.

Complex Compound

A complex- compound sentence contains one main clause and two or more subordinate clause that are connected with a co-ordinating linker.

The man said    that three workers had arrived   and    that four others were absent.

The man said                                   -(main clause)

 that three workers had arrived     – (subordinate clause)

 and                                                     -(co-ordinating linker)

 that four others were absent.        – (subordinate clause.)

One main clause and two subordinating clauses joined by a linker.

Compound complex

A compound complex sentence contains two main clauses, in which one main clause has a sub-clause.

The Maths syllabus is difficult  and  since it was implemented years agomany students have failed.

The Maths syllabus is difficult    -(main clause)

 And                                                   – (co-ordinating linker)

 since it was implemented years ago, – (subordinate clause)

many students have failed.                 – (main clause)

Examples of the five types of sentences based on structure.

Simple –  He loves books.

Compound He loves books and he often buys books.

ComplexHe loves books which are interesting.

Complex compound He loves books which are interesting and (which) have a lot of information.

Compound complex He loves books but as they are expensive he buys them rarely.



A card and an envelope.
Photo by rawpixel.com

Three words ‘a’ ‘an’ and ‘the’ are called articles.

Articles are of two types:

  1. Indefinite Articles
  2. Definite articles
  1. Indefinite Articles – ‘A’ and ‘An’ are weakened form of one and are called Indefinite Articles as they do not point out to any particular person or thing.
  2. Definite article – ‘The’ is called the definite article because it points out some definite or particular person or thing.

Use of Indefinite articles ‘A’ and ‘An’:

Use of indefinite article ‘A’;

  • Before a word beginning with a consonant sound:

  A boy, a pen

  • Before a word beginning with the sound ‘yu’

A university, a union, a unicorn, a usage, a European, a unicorn

  •  Before a word beginning with the sound ‘wu’

A one-pound note, a one-eyed monster

  •  Sounded ‘h’ words

A horse, a hero, a holiday

Uses of ‘An’:

  • Before words beginning with a vowel sound

     An orange, an umbrella, an eagle, an ass

  • Before words beginning with a silent ‘h

An honest man, an hour, an heir

  •  Before words beginning with consonant letters but having vowel sound

An M.P, an M.A, an M.L.A, an S.P, an S.D.O, an L.L.B, an F.R.C.S, an S.O.S, an N.G.O, an L.C.D.

  The letters (F.L.M.N.S) are pronounced with a vowel sound in some words.

  • Before a singular countable noun.

 I saw a girl skipping in the park.

  • Before a single countable noun which stands for a group.

A woman has to work to live. A dog needs care.

  • In certain expressions of speed ratio and price.

A dozen oranges. A lot of people. A great deal of hardwork ensures success.

  • In expressions of speed ratio price.

Rupees 50 a kilo. Twice a day. Twenty kilometres a litre.

Definite Article ‘The’

We  use ‘the’  when we mean a particular person or thing.

Use of definite article ‘The

a) When we speak of a person or thing for the second time.

     Eg. Take a chair.

    Take the chair near the window

b) When it is very clear what we are speaking about, we use the.

     Eg. The moon is shining in the sky.

      The telephone is ringing.

      The door of the study room is locked.

c) We use the with  names of:

  •  rivers, seas, oceans, canals, mountain ranges, group of islands.

The Ganga, the Indian ocean, the Himalayas, the Maldivies.

  • Deserts, forests,

       The Thar, the Kalahari, the Sundarbans, the Sherwood Forest

  •  Well known buildings, holy books, news papers.

The Taj Mahal, the Gita, the Telegraph, The Times

  •  Trains , ships, aeroplanes.

The Orient Express, the Titanic, the British Airways

  • Musical instruments

       The violin, the guitar, the piano

  •   Some countries which suggests accumulation of units.

    The U.S.A , the U.K,  the U.A.E. the Punjab, the Sudan

  •   With superlatives.

     The most beautiful, the biggest

  •   With ordinals.

    The first, the last

  • With directions

The East, the North, the South, the West

  •   Adjectives to denote the whole class.

    The rich, the poor.

  •   Before names of races, groups, and communities.

     The Hindus, the Chinese, the English

  •   Before a surname to refer to a family in plural.

    The Smiths, the Gandhis

  •  Before a known person or thing.

The flower looks beautiful. Pass the sugar please.

  •   Before the names consisting of noun + of + noun.

    The Bay of Bengal, the Bay of Naples.

  •   Before a noun made definite with a phrase/clause.

      The ship of the desert, The girl in the room.

  •   Before parallel comparatives.

      The more, the merrier. The higher you go the cooler it gets.

  • To make a proper noun common.

           John is the Einstein of his class.

           Mumbai is the New York of the East.

Before a noun to make emphasis.

This is the time to act.            He is the authority to do so.

Omission of the article

We don’t use the with

  • Proper nouns,                                    
  • Nouns that name materials,
  • Nouns that name abstract qualities.

       [  unless they have been made particular. ]

We need water for drinking.

The water we drink must be pure.

Kashmir is famous for its beauty.

The beauty of Kashmir is very famous.

The beauty of Kashmir is very famous.
Photo by Tayyab Khan


Hurrah! We have won the match.


An interjection is a word of exclamation, expressing a sudden feeling or emotion. They are rather marginal to language. i.e. They are not grammatically connected with any other word in a sentence.

Ah! The earthquake has destroyed many towns.

Hello! How are you?

Hurrah! We have won the match.

Alas! My dog is dead.

Oh! You scared me.

Hush! Don’t make a noise.

Ouch! I have hurt my leg.

Damn! I have lost this game.

Fie!  I am sick of you and your lies.

Wow! What a beautiful scenery it is!

Phew! That was a narrow escape.

Goodbye! See you later.

  • An interjection expresses a sudden strong feeling.


Interjections can be classified into three types.

Cognitive interjections   – these words give us information about the feelings of the speaker.

Wow! She is looking so pretty.

Emotive interjections – These words express emotions, like disgust, sorrow and fear.

Eww, What a stench!

Volitative interjections– These words act as imperative expressions commanding, requesting or demanding something from the addressee.

Hush! The baby is sleeping.

 Feelings                                          Interjections   

Surprise           –     [  Oh!   Oops!  Wow!   Gee!  What!  Boo!  Woah!   OMG!  Gosh!]

Disgust             –     [ Ugh!    Phew!     Tut-tut!      Damn!   Eww!    Yuck!  ]

Appreciation   –     [Bravo!   Encore!    Yeah!    Boo-yah!    Woo-hoo!    ]

Hatred /anger –     [Fie!      Pooh !       Hah!      Aargh!        Eek!     Rats! ]

Delight              –    [Hurray!    Cheers!     Yippee!   Bingo!    Yay!     ]

Attention         –     [Psst!     Yoo-hoo!   Hey!    Ahem!     Erm!

Greetings         –   [Goodbye!     Hello!     Hi!    Ho!    Hey!  ]

Sorrow              –  [Alas!     Ah!      Puff!     Oh!     Tsk-tsk!  ]

Onomatopoeia –    [Splash!  Bang!  Boom!  Crack!]

Pain                   –     [Ow!    Ouch!    Aah! ]

Making silent  –     [ Hush!    Shhh!  ]  

Affection          –     [ Mwah!]

Certain groups of words are also used as interjections.

Ah me!      Be quite!       Bless you!      Bloody hell!      Excuse me!      For shame!       Good gracious!    Good grief!      My goodness!       Oh God!   Oh no!     Oh dear!     Uh- oh!     Uh-huh!     Thank God!    What’s up?  Well done!          


Interjections primarily play an emotive function and are hence not usually used for academic or factual writing. These words may appear at the beginning, middle or at the end of the sentence.

Beginning of the sentence:

Wow! What a pleasant surprise.

Wow, what a pleasant surprise!

Middle of the sentence:

Look at her, my goodness, she is virtually flying!

This was certainly, my gosh, your best performance.

End of the sentence:

So it is raining again, huh?             

Hope to see you soon, goodbye!                                       

Crack! Went the thunder.


Apples, grapes and bananas are good for health.

A conjunction is a word which joins words, phrases or clauses. Conjunctions may also be called joining words.

Two and two makes four.

He will pass if he works hard.

Did you know that she has won the competition?

I cannot see how she can win.


Conjunctions are mainly of two types:

  1. Coordinating conjunctions
  2. Subordinating conjunctions

The third subtype is Correlative conjunctions.


Coordinating conjunctions are words which connect units of equal status and function (ie. Coordinate or independent clauses)

{Independent clause – a part of a sentence that makes complete sense}

Kamal and Dave are good friends.

She reached the station in time but the train was late.

[for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (Fanboys)]are the main coordinating conjunctions. Some other  conjunctions are [ therefore, too,  either, , neither, however, nevertheless, so, then]

Coordinating conjunctions can be sub divided into four types.

  1. Cumulative orCopulative –   and, also, too, as well as, both…and

(These words merely add one statement to another)

I worked for a long time and did not rest.

  1. Alternative or  Disjunctiveeither…or, neither…nor.

(These words express a choice between two alternatives)

Either he is crazy or he is a genius.

  1. Adversative or Conjunctive Adverbsstill, yet, only, but, however, nevertheless, moreover, furthermore, otherwise, finally, consequently

(These words express opposition or contrast between two statements)

The tortoise was slow; however, he won the race.

  1. Illative  – therefore, for , so, then, so…then

(These words express an inference)

He must have neglected his studies; for he failed.


Subordinating conjunctions connect subordinate or dependent clauses in a sentence.

{ Dependent clause – part of a sentence that does not make complete sense on its own. It depends on the main clause to complete its sense.}

He failed to catch the train because he was late.

I cannot leave the shop until he comes.

[after, although, as , as if, as soon as, because, before, ere, if, how, like,  since, so that, that, than, till, though, unless, until, where, when , while, whither, why,] are subordinating conjunctions.

Subordinating conjunctions may be divided into different groups according to their meaning.

  1. Cause or Reasonbecause, as, since

As she was not at home, I came back.

  1. Conditionprovided, supposing, unless, as, if, whether

I will stay at home if it rains.

  1. Comparisonthat, as…as

He is as tall as his father.

  1. Contrastthough, although, however, even if

She may kill me, yet I will trust her.

  • Purposein order that, so that, that, lest

Oly practises hard so that she could win the prize.

  • Result or effect so…that

Sam sings so loudly that he never needs a microphone.

  • Time  – after , before, as soon as, as long as, since, till, until, while

He completed his work before he left.


Correlative conjunctions are conjunctions used in pairs.

As (so)….as  –  He is as brave as a lion.

 Both… and  –  She is both a writer and a soldier.

Either…or Either you word hard or fail.

Neither…norNeither Ron nor Rick agreed to do the shopping.

No sooner… than –  No sooner did she go out than it began to rain.

Such…as Such teachers as those inspiring students deserve respect.

Scarcely/ Hardly…when  –  I had scarcely began to read when the lights went off.

The same… as – Robert gets the same amount as his friend Bob.


Conjunctions, which merely join two parts of sentences must be distinguished from Relative Pronouns, Relative Adverbs and Prepositions, which also connect words and act as linkers but do more than merely joining sentences.

This is the masterpiece that Picasso painted. (Relative Pronoun)

Here that refers to the masterpiece and acts as a pronoun.

This is the place where Shakespeare was born. (Relative Adverb)

Here where modifies the verb was born and joins the two parts of the sentence.

Dina and Mina went to the market. (Conjunction)

Here and simply joins two parts of the sentence and does no other work.


Rule 1. In case of sentences having more than two words or phrases put comma after each item except the last one.

I like fish, meat, eggs and sweet.

Rule2. In case of only two words or phrases no comma.

He often visits orphanages and old age homes.

Rule 3. I case of two coordinating clauses joined by a conjunction, put comma after the first independent clause just before the conjunction.

Independent clause, conjunction independent clause.

I’m not very hungry, so I will not eat now.

Rule 4. In case of subordinating conjunctions put comma after the dependent clause only if it is followed by the independent clause.

Dependent clause,subordinating conjunction independent clause.

Independent clause subordinating conjunction dependent clause.

After her results, she joined the army. { She joined the army after her results.(no comma)}

Rule 5. In case of conjunctive adverbs, put semi colon (;) after the first independent clause and a comma (,) after the conjunction, just before the second independent clause.  

Independent clause; conjunctive adverb, independent clause.

He went to the station; however, he failed to catch the train.

Make hay while the sun shines.

Comments regarding improvements and modifications would be highly appreciated.

References : High school English Grammar; New Madhyamik Grammar and composition.


The books are on the table.

A preposition is a word which shows the relation between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in a sentence.

1) The books are on the table.

‘On’ shows the relation between the bag and the books.

2) She painted the fabric ‘with’ colours.

With’ shows the relation between the fabric and colours.

i) There is a teacher in the class.

Here the preposition ‘in’ joins a noun to another noun.

ii) She is fond of music.

Here preposition ‘of’ joins a noun to adjective.

iii) The dog jumped off the wall.

Here the preposition ‘off’ joins a noun to a verb.


1] Simple preposition or preposition proper

2] Compound preposition

3] Complex or phrase preposition


These are made of one or two syllable and some may have adverbial roles. Common simple prepositions are:

About         before             down             on         through

Above           behind            during           out         to

Across     below     for    over        under

After     beneath     from     past    until

Along      beside      in        round      up

Amid    between   of        since        with

Among   beyond    off       till           at

Around   by                             


Compound Prepositions are formed by making compound of two simple prepositions.

In + to = into                 with + in = within

On + to = onto          with + out = without

out +side =outside 

through+out= throughout

in + side =inside

on + round = around              

up + to = upto            by + side = beside


Double Prepositions : outside of, from behind, out of, from beneath.

3] COMPLEX PREPOSITION (Prepositional phrase)

These two or three-word phrases function in the same way as simple prepositions.

According   apart from        along with

As to         as for          at variance with

Because of     by dint of  by means of

By virtue of      due to         for the sake of

In accordance with        in case of                       in charge of

In course of                   in order to                      in front of

In connection with        in favour of                   in lieu of

In response to                in spite of                      in view of

Instead of                      on account of                on behalf of

Together with               with a view to                with reference to


Participial prepositions

These present participles which are used without any noun or pronoun attached to them function as prepositions.

Barring, concerning, considering, during, notwithstanding, pending, regarding, respecting, touching.

E.g. Bears hibernate during winter.

        He said nothing regarding his promotion.

         Considering the weather, we decided to stay home.

        She was held in custody pending trial.



 Prepositions do not stand alone but needs complement. The complements of preposition can be a noun, pronoun, other parts of speech or a clause.

Noun-                         He kept the book on the table.

Pronoun-                    I spoke to him politely.

Adverb-                      They had reached by then.

-ing clause                  He was surprised at her saying this.

Wh-clause                  She was shocked at what he did.


After the verbs – arrive, come, go, get, take, bring, send – the word ‘home’ is used as an adverb so it does not usually take a preposition.   

He takes home a good salary.

Bring home an LCD T.V. and enjoy weekend movies.


Prepositions usually come before its complement but sometimes it is placed after the complement.

Wh- structures                        What are they looking at?

Relative clause                        That is the house that Jack built.

Passive structures                    He hates being laughed at.

Infinitive structures                 It is a nice place to live in.      


Prepositions can be classified into six types according to relationship with other words.

1. Place / position –   at, in, on, by, between, among

2. Time                 – at, in, on by, during, for, from, since, within

3. Movement        – through, across, along

4. Direction          – at, in, from, into, to, towards

5. Agent/ instrument or mannerby, with, for, in, from

6. Cause/ reason    – for, from, of, with

1] PLACE AND POSITION    [ at, in , on, by, between, among]

At   – A point  in space   – at the corner/end/ side/exit

          Name of bulding/ public place – at the Taj Mahal.

           Less known town/ village        – at home, at school.

In  –   Large town, country  –  in New York, in  France

          A point  within area  –   in the street, in the newspaper

 (In the end – finally, At the end -a point where something stops.)    

On – Position touching surface  –  on the table/ on the river

         Supported by someone or something- on the head/on a pole

         Position before page           –  on page 10

By – nearness                             –  by the door/ by the stream

Between– In the middle of two things – between two people.

Among–in the middle of more than two things – among the trees.

{Other prepositions which indicate position- below, by, under, behind, in front of, on top of, above, over}

TIME  [  in, at, on, by, for , during, from, since, within]

In –  Month                             – in March, in December

       Year                                 – in 2007, in 2020

       Decade                             – in the 70’s

       Centuries                          – in the 12th Century

       Parts of the day                – in the afternoon, in the evening

       Seasons                            – in spring, in winter

       After some time              –  in an hour/minute/day/year/month

                                                   In a week

On – Dates                           – on 2nd October

        Specific days                –  on a rainy day, on New year’s Day            

        Days of the week         –  on Wednesday/ Sunday

        Immediately after something – on his departure

{‘In time’ means with enough time to spare. ‘On time’ as pre planned, or at the nick of time.}

By – not later than the given time    – by 4 o’clock/ by tomorrow

At – Part of day                              – at night/ dawn /noon

During – throughout the period       – during winter/ summer

Since – From a specified time in the past  – since Sunday/ noon

For – Duration of time                      – for a year, for two hours

From –    Time  of starting               – From Friday

From..to – starting till end            – From 3pm to 6pm

Within     –  not later than the specified time  – within an hour

{ ‘Since’ refers to the starting point of an action. ‘For’ refers to a period of time or its duration}

DIRECTION   [  at, in into, from, towards, to]

From –  Starting point                 –  from college/ from the market

Towards – in the direction of       –  towards her mother

To   – in direction of something   –  to the school/ to his home

Into – moving to a point within something- into the river

In – Towards geographical direction – in the north

At – throwing towards                  – threw a pebble at the bird

MOVEMENT        [ through,  across, along ]

Along  –  Parallel or close to something –   along the bank of river

Across –  in front of or on something     – across the lane

Through –  from one end to another       –  through the village


For –    As a reward                         –  for his courage/  for $ 50

In   –   Showing medium material   –  in cash/ in ink/pen/pencil

By  –   Person who created it           – by Shelly/ by Shakespeare    

          Means of transport/ transfer – by car/train/air,   by cheque

From  –   Material                           –  from wool/paper/wood

With   – Instrument                         -with a knife/ with a periscope

CAUSE/REASON      [for , from ,of ,with]

Of      –   Cause                           – She is proud of her beauty.

For    –   Reason                         –  Birbal is famous for his wit.

From –   Reason of something   – He is suffering from jaundice.

With  –  because of something   – He is shaking with laughter.

Prepositions with different uses

At – place, time, direction

By – Agent, manner, time, place

On– place, time, reason

In  – place, time, direction, manner,

About – approximation, subject, place,

For – place, reason, agent, time

From – Direction, time, manner, reason

Of   –  Position, cause, origin, measurement

Out of – Place, cause, origin, condition

To – Direction, time, possible range.

With – instrument, reason, material, company

Words followed by appropriate Prepositions:

Abide – by, at, in, with                       adequate  – to / for  

Abound – in, with                               adapted  –  to / for / from

Absent – from                                     adjacent  – to  

Absorbed – in                                      adhere –  to

Absent – from                                     admit   – of/ to

Abstain – from                                    advantageous – to

Access – to                                          affection   – for

Accompanied – by, with                     affectionate  –  to

According – to                                    afraid –  of

According – to                                    affected   – by

Acquainted – with                               agree  –  with/ to / on

Accountable – to                                  alarmed  – at

Account – for                                       alien  – to

Accused – of                                        alight  –  from / on

Acquit – of                                           alive   –  to

Alliance   – with                                   aloof  –  from

Amazed  – at                                         ambiton   –  for

Amount  –  to                                        ambitious  – of     

 Amused  – at                                        angry  –  with/ about/ at

Annoyed  –  at/ with                             answer   –  to/ for

Anxious   –  about/  for                         apologise – to / for

Appeal – to / for / against                     appetite  – for

Apply – to/ for                                      approve – of

Apt  –  at / in                                          aptitude – for

Apprehensive – about/ of                      appropriate  – to/ for

Apropos (with reference to)  – of          arrangement – with/ for

Arrive –  at/ in                                        ascribe   to

Aspiration    – for                                   assent –  to

Associate – with                                    attach  –  to

Attack   –   on                                         attend  –  to/  upon

Attribute  –  to                                        authority  –   on / over

Avail   –  of                                            available    –   to


Bad  –  at                                                beg  – of /for

Believe – in                                            beneficial –  to

Bent  –  on                                              bestow  –  on / upon

Beware  –  of                                          blind – of/ in / to

Blessed   –  with                                     boast  –  of

Born   –    of                                           bound   –    for

Burden –  with                                        busy   –   with


Callous – to                                        capable –  of

Capacity  – for                                    care  – for/ of

Cause – of                                          cautious – of

Certain – of                                        caution  –  against

Charge  –  of/ against                         claim – to

Clear  – of                                          cling –  to

Close  – to                                          clothed – in

Coincide  – with                                 comment  – on

Compare  – with                                 compensate  –  with/ for

Competente – for                               compete  –  with

Complain  – to/ of / about                  composed   – of

Conceal  –   from                               conceive  –  of

Condemn  –  to/ for                            confident –  of

Confer   –  on                                     confined  –  in / to                                                                                                

Conform  –  with                               congenial  – to

Congratulate  –  on                            conscious   –   of

Consist  –  of/ in                                consistent  – with

Consult  –  with                                 contact  –  with

Contrast   –   with                              convince   –   of

Connive  –  at                                    contrary  –  to

Contribute  –   to                               control   over

Correspond  –  to/ with                      count   –   for

Credit   –  to/ with                              cure    –    of


 Deaf  –  in/ to                                    deal  –  in/ with

Debar  –  from                                    decide  –  on 

Dedicate  –  to                                    defend  –   from

Deficient  –  in                                   deficiency  – of

Delight  – in  / at                                deliver   – to / from

Depend  –  upon/ o                            deprive  – of

Derive  –  from                                  descend – from

Deserving  – of                                  desire – for

Desirous  – of                                    despair – of

Detach –  from                                   deter  –  from

Devoid   – of                                      devoted  – to

Die – of /by from/for/in/through       differ – from / with

Difference – between                        different – from    

Difficulty  – with                               disappoint – in /of

Disappointed – with                          discussion – with

Disagree – with                                 disgrace – to

Disgust – with                                   dislike  – for

Dispense  – with                                displease  – with/ at / by

Displease  –  with / at/ by                  dispose – of

Dispute – with / about                       disqualified – for / from

Dissent – from                                   dressed – in

Dissimilar – to                                   dissuade – from

Distinguish  – between/ from             divert  –   from

Divide  – into                                      doubt – about/ of

Due – to                                              dull – at / of                                                                                                               

Dwell – in/ upon                                 dye – with


Eager – for/ after                                 eligible  –  for

Emerge  –   from                                  encroach  –  upon

End  –  in                                              endow  – with

Engage   – with/ in to                           enter  –  into / upon / for

Entertain –  with                                   entitle  – to

Entrust –  with                                      envy – of/ at

Envious  –  of                                       equal – in / with / to

Essential – to/ for                                 escape  – from

Excel  – in                                             example  –  of

Exception  –  to/ of                               exchange –  with / for          

Exclude  –  from                                   exclusive   –  of

Excuse  –  from/ for                              exempt    –   from       

Expect   –  from / of                              experience  – of / in

Expert  –  at / in / on                              explain  –  to

Expose   –   to


Faith   –  in                                               faithful  –  to

False  – to                                                 familiar  –  with

Famous  –   for                                         fatal  – to

Favour   – of                                             favourable  –  to / for

Fear  – of                                                  feel   – for

Fight  –  with / over/ against                     fit   for

Fond  –  of                                                 Fondness –  for

Foreign   –  to                                            forgetful   –  of

Free  –  from/ of                                        frightened  – of /at

Frown  –  on / at                                         full –  of


Gifted  – with                                              glad  –  at/ about / of

Glance  –  at/  over                                      glory   –  in

Good   –  at/ for                                           grateful   –  to/ for

Greedy  –  of  / for                                       greed  – of / for

Grieve – at / for /over                                 grumble  –  at / over

Guard  –  against                                         guess – at 

Guilty –  of


 Happen to                                                    hanker  – after

hatred – of/ for                                             harmful  –  to

hear  –  of / from                                           heed   –  to

heir  –  to                                                       hide   –  from

hinder  – from                                               hint –  at   

hope   -for                                                     hostile    –  to

hunt   –  for / out                                            hunger  –  for           


Identical –  with                                           ignorant   –  of

Immaterial – to                                            ill  –  of/ with                                                            

Immersed –  in                                             immune  –  to

Impart  –  to                                                 impart   –  to

Impatient  –  of / for                                    import  – from     

Import   –  from                                           impose  –  upon

Impress  –   with                                          indulge  –  in / with

Infer  –   from                                              incentive  –  to

Inclination  –  to                                          include  –  in

Indebted  –  to                                             inclusive  –  of

Independent  –  of                                       indifferent  –  to

Inferior  –  to                                               infested  –  with

Influence  – with / over/ upon                     inform   –   of                                              

Inform   – of                                                infuse  –  into

Innocent  –  of                                             inquire – about/into/for     

Insensible –  to                                            insist  –  upon 

Inspire   –  with                                           interest  –  in

Interfere  –  with / in                                   intimate  –  with

Introduce  –  to / into                                  intrude – into /upon

Invited  –  to                                               involved – in


 Jealous  –  of                                               jeer  –  at

Jest  –  about                                                join  – in / with

Jump – at / to                                              junior  –  to   


Keen – on                                                    key  – to

Kind  –  to / of                                              knock –  at


Lack  – of / in                                               lame  – of

Lament  –  for / over                                    laugh  –  at

Lavish  –  in / with  / upon                           liable  –  to/ for

Likeness  –  to / of                                       liking  – for

Live – in/ at/ on/ by/ for/ with                     long  –  for

Lost  – to/ in                                                 loyal  –  to


Mad  – with / about                                   marry  –  to

Match  –   for                                             meditate  –  upon

Meet  –   with                                             menace  – to

Mindful  –  of                                             mix – in / with

Mourn – for                                               moved  – to

Muse – on                                              


Natural  – to                                               necessity – for / of/ to

Necessary  – for/ to                                    need – of / for

Neglect – of / for                                       negligent – of

Negotiate  – with                           


Object – to                                                objection –to/ against

Oblige – to / for                                        obstacle – to

Occupied – with/ in                                  occur – to

Offend  – against                                       offended  – with

Offensive – to                                           open  – to

Opportunity  –  for                                    oppose  – to

Opposite  – to                                            opposition  –  to

Originate  – in/ from                                  overcome  –  with

Overwhelm  –  with                                   owe  –  to


Parallel  –  to                                              part – from/ with

Partake – in                                                partial  – to

Participate  – with/ in / about                     passion – for

Patient  –  with                                           peace – with

Particular – about                                      passion – for

Patient  –  with                                           peace  –  with

Peculiar – to                                               peculiar  – to

Permit – of                                                 persist – in

Pity –  for                                                    play – on / with

Plead – for / with                                        pleased – with

Plunged – in                                               polite – in

Poor  – in                                                    popular  – with / for

Precaution – against                                   prefer  – to

Prejudice – against                                     prepare – for

Present – with                                            preside- at/ over            

Pretend – to                                                prevent  – from

Prey –  on / to                                              pride – in / on

Proud – of                                                   prior – to

Proceed – with /from/ against                     proficient – in

Profit – by                                                   profitable – to

Prohibit  – from                                           prompt – in

Prone  – to                                                   proof – against

Proportionate – to                                       protect – from/ against  Provide – against/for/with                           protection – against   pursuance  – of                                           


Qualify – for                                               quick – at

Quarrel – with/ over/ about                        quest  – for


Ready – for/ at /with                                   reason – for/ with

Rebel – against                                            reckon – with / on

Reconcile – with /to                                    recourse  – to

Recover – from                                           reduce – to

Refer – to                                                    reflect – upon

Refrain – from                                            regard – for

Rejoice – in / at                                           related – to

Relation – to/ between/ with                       relevant – to

Relieved – from/of                                      rely – on

Remarkable – for                                         remedy – for / against

Remind – of                                                 render – into\

Repent – of                                                  repentance –  for

Replace – by / with                                      replace – by / with

Reply  –  to                                                   reproach – for

Require  – of / from                                      resign – to

Required – to                                               resolve–into/upon                                    

Respectful – to                                             restore – to 

Responsible – for /to                                    rest – with

Restrict – to                                                  retire  – from/ to        

Result – of / from/in                                     revenge – on 

Reward – with                                              rich – in

Rid – of                                                         rob – of

Rude – to/ about    


Sacred – to                                                   safe – from

Satisfaction – in/at/with/ of                         satisfy – with

Search – for/ of                                            secure – from/against

Seek – for/ after/ from                                 senior – to

Sensible – of                                                sensitive – to

Sentence – to                                                short – of

Shrink – from                                               silent – about

Sick – of                                                       similar – to

Similarity  – to/between                                side – with                                                                                                                                            

Slave – of / to                                               slow- about/at/down       

Smell – of                                                     smile – at/ upon

Snatch  – at                                                   sorry – for/about Spread – out/over                                         stain – on

Stare – at                                                      start – for/ from

Stick – at/ to                                                 strange – to

Subject – to/ of /for                                      stoop – to

Submit – to                                                   subordinate – to

Subscribe – to                                               subsequent – to

Subsist – on                                                  substitute – for

Succeed – in/to                                             succumb – to

Sufficient – for                                              suffer – from

Suitable – for / to                                          supply – to / with

Superior – to                                                 supplement – to

Sure – of                                                        surprise – at

Suspect – of                                                   suspicious – of

Suspend – from                                             sympathy – for/ with

Sympathise – with                                         sympathetic – to

Synonymous – with


Talk – to/ about                                            tamper – with

Taste – of                                                      teem – with

Testify – to                                                   thankful  – to/for

Think – of/ about /on/ over                          thirst – for

Tide – over                                                   tired – of

Tolerant – of /towards                                  touch – on/ with

Treat – of / to                                                tremble – with

True – to                                                        trust – to/with/in

Typical – of


Unaware – of                                                 unconscious – of

Unite – with                                                   urge – upon

Use – of                                                         used – for/ to

Useful – to                                            


Vary – from                                                    versed – in

Vested – with                                                  vexed – with

Victim – of / to                                                View – on/ to


Wait – for/ upon                                             weak – in

Weakness – for                                               want – of / for


Yearned – for                                                 yield – to


Zeal – for                                                        Zest – for


Rules for usage

i) Do not use infinitive with certain words which require a preposition followed by a Gerund (verbal noun).

She is addicted to smoking.(not-to smoke)

He assisted me in rowing the boat.

I am fond of reading books.

ii)  Sometimes both constructions are possible.

She was afraid of telling the truth.

She was afraid to tell the truth.

iii) Certain words always take the infinitive.

He advised us to leave the place.

I hope to get the first prize.

iv) Prepositions are  sometimes wrongly omitted:

   What use is it?    [incorrect]

   Of what use is it? [correct]

v) Prepositions are sometimes inserted where they are not required.

 Where have you been to? [incorrect]

 Where have you been?      [correct]

He jumped into the river.


She is writing neatly,

An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

We may say that it adds to the meaning of a verb, adjective or an adverb.

1)Philip runs quickly.

In this sentence the adverb quickly modifies the verb runs. It tells us about the manner in which Philip runs.

2) This is a very sweet apple. In this sentence the adverb very modifies the adjective sweet. It tells us to what degree the apple is sweet.

3) Sharah sings quite sweetly. In this sentence the adverb quite modifies the adverb sweetly. It tells us how far or to what extent she sings sweetly.

Types of adverb:

i) Adverbs of Manner

ii) Adverbs of Time

iii) Adverbs of Place

iv) Adverbs of Frequency

v) Adverbs of Degree or Quantity

vi) Adverbs of Reason

vii) Adverbs of Affirmation or Negation

viii) Adverbs of Certainty

ix) Relative adverbs

x) Interrogative adverbs

xii) Focusing Adverbs


  Adverb of Manner (how-adverbs) tells us how or in what manner an action is done.

 The soldiers fought bravely.

  He did it manually.

  The story is well written.

  She was agreeably disappointed.

  Thus he succeeded.

[This class includes nearly all those Adverbs which are derived from Adjectives and end in –ly.]


Adverb of place (where adverbs) show where or at what place the action is done.

The meeting was held here.

Go there.

The doctor is out.

Is Mr John within?

Walk backward.

Stop here.

They went upstairs.


Adverb of time (when-adverb) tells us when or at what time an action is done.

It rained yesterday.

The guests will arrive soon.

The boy arrived late in class.

Vinni comes here daily.

Wasted time never returns.

Mr. Smith formerly lived here.


An adverb of frequency (How often- adverb) tells us how often or how frequently an action is done.

He visits us daily.

She spoke to me twice.

They often play cricket.

He seldom comes here.

She always cooks dinner.

I have not seen him once.

She frequently comes late.

The messenger came again.


These adverbs (how much or to what degree- adverbs) tells us to what extent an action is done.

I fully agree with you.

He was too careless.

The glass is almost full.

They treated him most cruelly.

He is good enough for my purpose.

She was altogether mistaken.

Things are no better now.

She sings pretty well.

I am rather busy.

You are quite wrong.

I am so glad.

We are fully prepared.

You are partly correct.


Adverb of reason (why-adverb) tells us why an action has taken place.

She wanted to buy a pen therefore she went out.

He is sick hence unable to go to school.

The work was not done in time consequently the project failed.


These adverbs affirm or negate an action.(yes, no, surely, perhaps)

You are surely mistaken.

He has certainly done it.

I do not know him.

He is not busy.

I have not done it.

‘Yes’ and ‘No’ are generally classified as adverbs. They are in fact substitutes for a whole sentence, by a process where words once used are understood as repeated. This process is called ellipsis.

Q: Have you reached there?

A: Yes.( I have reached.)

Q: Are you feeling sick?

A: No. (I am not feeling sick.)


Adverb of certainty (how sure-adverbs) tells us how sure we are of something.

It will probably rain tomorrow.

Perhaps the train is late.

She is definitely late.


 Relative adverbs like relative pronouns introduce adjective clause.

Tell them the reason why you lied.

I know the street where she lives.

Do you know when the chief guest will arrive?


An interrogative adverb not only modifies some words but begins a question.

When will he come? (Time)

How many people are there? (number)

How far must we travel? (degree)

Why was he upset? (reason)

Where is the market? (place)


These adverbs ‘point to’ one part of a clause.

We are only going for a day.

He has even gone to the President.

The crowd consisted of mainly students.

According to their usage adverbs are divided in to three classes.

1)Simple adverbs. – You are quite right.

2) Interrogative adverbs – Why are you late?

3) Relative adverbs –I remember the house where I was born.

Formation of adverbs:

From the viewpoint of formation . Adverbs may be divided into four categories.

1) Simple formation- fast, very, too

2) Derivative ( formed by adding ‘ly’ suffix.) – slowly, usually, gracefully

3) Compound ( formed by joining two words) – somewhere -> some + where, anywhere -> any+where

4) Composite (adverbials or phrases working as adverbs)- at last, on foot, at least.

Forms of adverbs

Some words are used both as adverbs and adjectives in the same form.

ADJECTIVES                          ADVERBS

She came by the back entrance.                  She came back.

She faced little problem while trekking.                    She is little known outside U.S.

It was a hard sum.                                                      He works hard to earn money.

She is the best teacher.                                               She behaves best in the class.

I am an early riser.                                                       He rises early.

He is the only child.                                                     You can only guess.

Comparison of adverbs

Some adverbs like adjectives have three degrees of comparison.

  Positive   Comparative  Superlative

Fast           Faster            Fastest Long          longer              longest  hard         harder          hardest Soon          sooner      soonest           Swiftly  moreswiftly  mostswiftly   Skillfully more skillfully most skillfully Early         earlier                 earliest

Position of Adverbs

i) Adverbs of Manner are usually placed after the verb or object if there is one:

  He is walking slowly

The boy is running fast.

  She writes letters well.

  He does his work carefully.

ii) Adverb phrases of place and time are also placed after the verb or object if any.

  She will go there.

  He searched everywhere.

  She met me yesterday.

They are going to Paris next month.

iii) In case of two or more adverbs. The normal order is – Adverb of manner; Adverb of place;  

Adverb of time.

We should go there tomorrow evening.

She danced beautifully at the function last evening.

iv) Adverbs of frequency are normally put between the subject and the verb.

 He never goes to the zoo.

 I quite agree with you.

 She has never seen a lion.

 We usually go to sleep by nine.

v) The verb enough is placed before the word it modifies.

 He was rash enough to drive fast.

 She sang loud enough to be heard by all.

vi) The word only is usually placed after the word it modifies.

 I worked only four hours.

 She did only two sums.

However in spoken English only is placed before the word it modifies.

 She only worked two sums.

 I only slept for three hours.


Adjectives are describing words. It is a red book.

Definition: An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun and adds something to its meaning by acting as a pre modifier or post modifier. (Adjective means added to.)

E.g. It is a red book.

The book is red.

 Types of adjectives:

1) Adjectives of Qualityshows the kind or quality of a person or thing. E.g.   red, big, heavy, tall.

2) Adjectives of Quantityshows how much of a thing is meant.  some, much, enough, all.

3) Adjectives of Number: shows how many persons or things are meant.  eight, many, all, first.

a) Definite numeral adjectives: i)Cardinals: one, two three.

                                                       ii) Ordinals: first, second, third.

b) Indefinite numeral adjectives: E.g.  some, all, few, many, several.

c) Distributive numeral adjectives: E.g. each, every, either, neither. 

Demonstrative adjectives: E.g. This, That, These, Those, Such.

Interrogative Adjectives: E.g. Which, What, whose (followed by noun)

Possessive Adjectives:  E.g. my, your, her, his.

Emphasizing adjectives: E.g. own, very.


Three football players.

Common Rules:

i)Number is usually placed before other adjectives. E.g. Eleven cricket players. Third highest mountain.

ii) Adjectives denoting size, length, height comes first.  E.g. A square glass table.  A big blue house.

iii) Adjectives denoting judgments and attitudes comes first. E.g. A wise, handsome, young man.

iv) We place colour, origin, material, purpose before noun. E.g. A white, Chinese, porcelain, Ming vase.

v) Commas are placed between sequences of similar adjectives. Often before the last adjective and is used. E.g. She is a tall, fair, and beautiful girl.

Some adjectives can act as noun and are used with ‘The

The rich, The poor etc.

Form: Adjectives can be simple or derivative. Derivative adjectives can be formed by adding adjective suffixes like, -ible, -able, -ful, -ic, -ish, ive, -ous, -y etc.

Most common adjectives have three forms in three degrees:

   POSITIVE               |                                  COMPARATIVE              |                      SUPERLATIVE

   Good                                                            better                                                   best

    Bad                                                             worse                                                   worst

    Tall                                                              taller                                                     tallest

    Pretty                                                         prettier                                                 prettiest     

    Intelligent                                                  more intelligent                                  most intelligent

    Common                                                    commoner                                           commonest        

    Silly                                                             sillier                                                     silliest              

    Grey                                                            greyer                                                   greyest

   Well known                    better known/more well known                   best known/most well known



Positive degree of adjectives simply tells us about the quality of a person or thing.

E.g. Ron is tall.

 If his friend Mark is also of the same height and there is no comparison, we may say:

Ron is as tall as Mark.  In positive degree we use ‘   as _____ as,’ to show similarity in quality.


Comparative degree compares the quality between two things or people.

E.g. Ron is taller than Anna.

Comparative degree denotes a higher degree of quality than the positive. Usually ‘er’, ‘more’ along with ‘than’ is used in comparison.


Hannah is the tallest among the friends; she is also the most beautiful.

Superlative degree denotes the highest of the quality and is used when more than two things are compared. Usually ‘est’,’most’ along with ‘the’ is used in superlative sentences.

This is the tallest building in this area.


A verb is a word that says , what a person is, has or does.

  • Sophie plays tennis. (doing)
  • Monica is an intelligent girl.(being)
  • Mr Wayne has a car.(possessing)

Verb is the heart of a sentence. A sentence almost always has a verb( Except in nominal sentences like” What a lovely picture!”). A sentence can be of a single word, but that word has to be a verb. Eg. Sit . Speak. Stand , Run.

All these words make complete sense and are one word sentences containing verbs.

Most of the verbs are doing verbs.

‘Be’ and its forms suggests being.

‘Have’ and its forms suggests having.

Verbs may be divided into various categories. Let us first look at the two basic types of verbs.  The main verb, and the helping verb or the auxiliaries.



Main verbs are open class verbs which can be used as full verbs.

There are 5 Main Verb forms:

  •        V1(Present tense)        eat
  •        V2(Past tense)       ate
  •        V3(Past participle)   eaten
  •       V4(Present Participle) eating   
  •      V5(Singular) eats

Main verbs may be divided into Regular and Irregular verbs.


Weak and strong verbs.


All the above verbs end with ‘ed’, ‘d’ or ‘t’ in the past tense which was changed from the present tense with or without any change of the side vowel. These verbs are called regular verbs or weak verbs.

Eg; play , played , played , playing , plays

spend , spent , spent , spending , spends


If a verb does not require the addition of ed, d or t  to form the past tense ,it is a strong verb. The verbs given below are examples of strong verbs which are also called irregular verbs.

Eg: go , went , gone , going , goes

sing , sang , sung , singing , sings

These main verbs denote the main action in a sentence.


Helping verbs are also called auxiliaries. They are of two types primary auxiliaries and modals.

                                          PRIMARY AUXILIARIES                                                                        

BE is/am/are was/were will be/ shall be
HAVE has /have had willhave/shallhave
DO do/ does did Will do/ shall do

The primary auxiliaries are helping verbs that can form sentences without the help of main verb. Eg. Kiran is intelligent. In this sentence ‘is’ acts like a main verb in order to form a sentence.  In the sentence, ‘ I will paint a picture.’Paint is the main verb, and ‘will‘ is the auxiliary.


Ought to/used to


Verbs can also be divided into:

i) Transitive verb

ii)  Intransitive verb.


A transitive verb is a word that denotes an action which passes from the subject to the object: These verbs cannot complete their meaning without object and can be used in active as well as passive voice.

Eg:i) Nike flew a kite.

       ii)Rosy recited a poem.

In the first example the action is transferred to the kite , whereas, in the second example the action is transferred to the poem. The words ‘flew’ and ‘ recited’ are transitive verbs.


An Intransitive verb is a verb which can complete its meaning  without an object. These verbs are used in active voice only and may take a complement.

i)Mary laughed.

ii)The garden looks beautiful.

iii)John is sad.

iv)The minister looked angry.

In the last three examples  the words ‘beautiful’,  ‘sad’, and ‘angry’ help to complete the predicate and are called ‘COMPLEMENT’.


I) FINITE VERB: A Finite verb has present and  past forms and changes with tense, person and number of the subject. It forms an essential part of the sentence.

She writes emails.      ( Present tense)             She wrote emails.    (Past tense)

They write  emails.     (Present tense)              They wrote emails.   (Past tense)


Non finite verbs are of two types.

1)     INFINITIVE                                               2)   PARTICIPLES

1) INFINITIVE  VERBS: They  remain unchanged in tenses and is preceded by marker ‘to’.

Eg: She likes to draw landscapes.     ( Present tense)   likes-> finite verb,  ‘to draw’-> infinitive verb, does not change with tense or subject.

 Eg: She liked to draw landscapes. (Past tense)  liked-> finite verb, (changes with tense)  ‘to draw’ -> infinitive verb, (does not change)

2) PARTICIPLE : Participles are non finite verbs , and are of two types.


a)Present participles are made by adding ‘ing’ to the main verb.

Eg; playing, writing, running, driving, painting, flowing.

b)Past participles are made by ‘-d’ or ‘-ed’ to regular verbs and by the third form of irregular verbs.

Eg: played, written, run, driven, painted, flowed.


A gerund is that form of verb which ends in ‘-ing’ and has the force of a noun and a verb.

Eg: I love shopping.    In this sentence love is the main verb and shopping  stands for something hence is used as a noun.

      Seeing  is believing.    I like writing poetry.     Stop writing,    He is fond of playing  football.


MAIN VERB :  Main verbs are open class verbs which can be used as full verbs.  There are 5 Main Verb forms:

AUXILIARY VERB:  Helping verbs are also called auxiliaries. They are of two types primary auxiliaries and modals. Primary             auxiliaries can be used as a full verb , while modals accompany main verbs.

CATENATIVE VERB : A chain like structure formed by main verbs when used one after another. Eg: She got hurt. She keeps singing.

CAUSATIVE VERB: A verb that causes something to happen. Eg He had them delivered. She makes me laugh.

COPULA (R) VERB: A verb that joins a subject to its complement.

ERGATIVE VERB : These verbs are used transitively and intransitively with different kinds of subjects. Eg: She opened the door.  The door opened.

EVENT VERB:  Event verbs denote actions. Eg, come , go, play,  run, do, drink.

FINITE VERB: A finite verb changes with tense, number, person of the subject and forms an essential part of the sentence.

INTRANSITIVE VERB : Intransitive verbs are verbs which can complete their meaning  without an object. These are used in active voice only and may take a complement.

IRREGULAR VERBS: If a verb does not require the addition of ed, d or t  to form the past tense ,it is a strong verb, which are also called irregular verbs. Eg: eaten, driven, spoken.

MAIN VERB : Main verbs are base verbs which are used as full verbs .

MODALS : Modals are auxiliary verbs which are used along with main verbs to form a sentence.

PERFORMATIVE VERB : Verbs like ‘request’, ‘forbid’, ‘inform’ , ‘promise’, ‘apologize’, ‘thank’  that clearly state the kind of act being performed are called performative verb. It usually begins with ‘I’.

PHRASAL VERB: A type of verb which works like a phrase is called a phrasal verb. Eg: go up, come down, put down.

QUASI-PASSIVE VERB : These verbs are active in form but passive in sense. Eg: Wheat sells cheap.- Wheat is sold cheap.

Honey tastes sweet.- Honey is sweet when tasted.

REGULAR VERB : All the above verbs end with ‘ed’, ‘d’ or ‘t’ in the past tense which was changed from the present tense with or without any change of the side vowel. These verbs are called regular verbs or weak verbs.

TRANSITIVE VERB :  A transitive verb is a word that denotes an action which passes from the subject to the object: These verbs cannot complete their meaning without object and can be used in active as well as passive voice.

The girl kicked the ball.


A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.It is a replacing word.

Eg: I, we, you,they, he,she,it.


  • Personal pronoun
  • Demonstrative pronoun
  • Reflexive pronoun
  • Emphasizing or emphatic pronoun
  • Indefinite pronoun
  • Distributive pronoun
  • Relative pronoun

Personal pronouns:

Personal pronouns stand for three persons:

1st person – the person speaking ; I,we. 2nd person – person spoken to; you. 3rd person – the spoken of; He, she, it.

Different forms of personal pronoun:

NOMINATIVE : singular / plural 1st person – I / we 2nd person – you / you 3rd person – he,she,it / they

POSSESSIVE: singular / plural 1st person- my, mine / our,ours 2nd person- your / your 3rd person- his,her,hers,its / their,theirs

ACCUSATIVE singular / plural 1st person- me/ us 2nd person- you / you 3rd person- him,her/ them

Impersonal pronouns: It rains , or it snows. Here ‘it’ stands for rain or snow. It rains , means the rain(n) rains (v).

It is proper to use: My sister and I. You and he , instead of the other way round .

Demonstrative pronouns

These are Mick’s colour pencils.

This , that, these ,those are Demonstrative pronouns as they take the place of a noun.

Eg: This is the Governor’s chair. That is a beautiful painting. Those are his test papers. These are Mick’s colour pencils. In these examples we find that the demonstratIves stand for the nouns mentioned in the sentence , hence they are replacing words or pronouns.

The demonstratives-this, that,these,those may also be used as adjectives. In case of Demonstrative adjectives , the demonstratives will qualify or describe the noun and not stand for it.

Eg. This car is mine. Those hills are beautiful. That house belongs to my friend. These pencils are broken.

Here we observe that the demonstrative adjectives are usually placed just before the noun and tell us something about the noun.

Reflexive and emphatic pronoun: myself, himself ,herself , yourself, yourselves , ourselves, themselves are reflexive our emphatic pronouns , depending on their usage.

Reflexive pronouns: In reflexive pronouns the doer of the action also becomes the receiver of the action. ie. The action is reflected back. The dog hid itself. They enjoyed themselves in the party. He hurt himself while playing. I saw myself in the mirror. In the above examples the doer is also the receiver of the action.

Emphatic or emphasising pronoun. In this case the emphatic pronouns are used for the sake of emphasis .

Eg: I myself saw him stealing the letter. He went to the management himself. She herself painted the wall. We set ourselves a difficult task. In the given examples the pronouns , myself, himself, herself, ourselves could have been avoided, but have been used for the sake of emphasis.

Indefinite pronouns : The pronouns which do not refer to any particular person or thing are called indefinite pronouns.

Eg; any, some, few, one, anybody, everybody, anyone, someone. Most of these words maybe used as adjective. Any student can solve this. Some water was drunk. If anyone wants this, let him come forth. Everybody thinks their burden is the heaviest.

Distributive pronouns. Distributive pronouns refer to persons or things one at a time. Therefore , they are always singular and followed by a singular verb. Eg: each, either , neither. At either end stood a policeman. Each of the boys received a gift. Neither of the answer is true .

Relative pronoun Relative pronoun is a pronoun which refers or relates to a noun mentioned before.(antecedent) I have found the book which I had lost. He is the man whom all praise. Blessed is he who has found his work. This is the house that Jack built.

Interrogative pronouns Pronouns used for asking questions are called interrogative pronouns. Eg: What is that? Whom do you want? Which is the house? Who is there? Who is used for persons only. Which is used for both persons and things. What is used for things only. in case of the sentence , What are you? …. I am a doctor. What stands for the profession doctor.


Types of nouns

There are 5 types of nouns-

  • Proper Nouns
  • Common Nouns
  • Abstract Nouns
  • Collective Nouns
  • Material Nouns

Proper Nouns

A proper noun or special name is a noun which represents a unique thing (such as Paris, Saturn, Brian, or Sony), as opposed to a common noun, which represents a class of things (for example, city, planet, person or factory).


Common Nouns

common noun is a noun representing a person, place, or thing in a class or group. Unlike proper nouns, a common noun is not written in capital letters unless it either begins a sentence or appears in a title. Common nouns can be concrete (perceptible to the senses), abstract (involving general ideas or qualities), or collective (referring to a group or collection).

Examples: boys; city: rivers; animal.


Abstract Nouns

Abstract nouns are words which name things that are not concrete. Your five physical senses cannot detect an abstract noun – you can’t see it, smell it, taste it, hear it, or touch it. In essence, an abstract noun is a quality, a concept, an idea, or maybe even an event.

Examples : happiness, grief , marriage, length, pain.



Collective Nouns

collective noun is a noun that describes a group of things.

Examples are:

  • A bevy of girls
  • A school of fish.
  • A bunch of keys.
  • A parliament of owls.
A school of fish.

Material Nouns

Material Noun is the name of a material or a substance or an ingredient of an alloy. 

Examples :

  • Diamond
  • Iron
  • Wood
  • Gold
A diamond