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There are two ways of reporting the words spoken by an individual:

Directly – Ron said, “I will win the match.”

Indirectly– Ron said that he would win the match.

Direct speech – The actual words of the speaker is used within double inverted commas. (“   “)

Indirect Speech – When the words of a speaker are reported in our own words.

Reporting verb – In the direct speech, those words which appear outside the double inverted commas are called reporting verb. The reporting verb introduces the words of the speaker. This verb indicates who speaks to whom, how and when.

Reported speech : Those words which are used within inverted commas in the direct speech is called reported speech.

Direct speech example:

The teacher said, “The earth revolves around the sun.”

In this sentence – The teacher said    is the reporting verb.

“ The earth revolves around the sun.”   is the reported speech.

Indirect speech

The teacher said that the earth revolves around the sun.

[ R.V. = Reporting verb,       R.S.  = Reported speech  ]

[D.S. = Direct speech,           I.S. = Indirect speech]     

For changing Direct speech into Indirect speech, the following rules need to be observed.

Rule -1

 If the R.V. is in the present or the future tense, then the tense of the verb does not change. [ no need to change the tense of the R.S. ]

E.g. D.S-  He says, “He is in deep trouble.”

         I.S.- He says that he is in great trouble.

If the R.S. expresses a universal truth or some habitual facts, then the tense of the reported speech remains as it is.

E.g. D.S.- “ The teacher said, “God is immortal.”

       I.S. – The teacher said that God is immortal.”


 In case the reporting verb is in the past tense the tense of the verb will change correspondingly.

i) A simple present becomes a simple past.

e.g. D.S.- She said, “ I am busy.”

       I.S.-  She said that she was busy.

ii) A present continuous becomes Past continuous.

 D.S.- She said, “I am writing a poem.”

 I.S.- She said that she was writing a poem.

iii) A present perfect becomes a past perfect.

D.S.-They said, “We have done our duty.”

I.S. –They said that they had done their duty.

iv) The simple past is often but not always changed to past perfect.

D.S- Veronica said, “ I drank coffee after dinner.”

I.S.- Veronica said that she had drunk coffee after dinner.


If the R.S. expresses nearness in time or place then, it is changed into a word that expresses distance.

Now       –      Then

This        –     That

These    –     those

Thus     –      so/ that way

Come    –     Go

Here     –     There

Hence    –    Thence

Ago     –      before

Today  –    That day

Tomorrow  – The next day

Yesterday   –   The day before / The previous day

Last night  – The night before / The previous night

Last week/ month/ year    –     The week/ month/ year before or the  previous week/ month/ year etc.

Rule – 4 Rules regarding tenses

Said to  (in R.S.)            –              told

Said (in R.S.)                –               had said

Is saying                       –               was saying

Was saying                  –               had been saying

Can                               –               could

Will                               –                would

Shall                             –                should/would

May                              –                might    

Is                                   –                was

Am                                –                was     

Has                               –                 had

Has  been                     –                had been

Come                           –                 came

Has come                    –                 had come

Has been coming       –                 had been coming           

Is coming                     –                 was coming

Rule – 5

Rules regarding pronouns

a) Pronoun of first person change into the person and gender of the subject of R.V.

i)  D.S.- I said, “ I am happy today.”

     I.S.- I said that I was happy that day.

ii) D.S.-  You said, “I am happy today.”

     I.S.-  You said that you were happy that day.

iii) D.S. –  He said, “ I am happy today.”

     I.S.-  He said that he was happy that day.

iv) D.S. –  Robert said, “My pen is lost.”

      I.S.  – Robert said that his pen was lost.

b) Pronouns of the second person change according to the object of R.V.

D.S. – He said to me, “ You are right.”

I.S. – He said to me that I was right.

c) The pronouns of the third person do not change.

D.S. – He said, “She is an intelligent girl.”

I.S. – He said that she was an intelligent girl.

Rule 6

Rules for reporting statements or assertive sentences

i) Place suitable reporting verb.

ii)  While reporting statements ‘that’  conjunction is introduced.

iii) Change verb in reported speech.

iv) Change pointer word of nearness into that of distance.

D.S. – He said, “The bad weather last night stopped me from coming here.”

I.S. – He said that the bad weather the previous night stopped him from going there.

List of reporting verbs

said,        told,        added,          informed,         remarked/commented,        Answered/ replied    asserted,     assured,    hoped,     explained,     agreed,       admitted,     pointed out,     accepted,      advised,      insisted,       protested,      warned,       threatened,       refused     interrupted,      cursed,         offered,          congratulated        

Rule 7

Rules regarding interrogative sentences:                        

Interrogative sentences are of two types

  1. Formed by question verb. (wh-word :normal answer)
  2. Formed by auxiliary verb or helping verb. (Answers in ‘yes’ or ‘no’)
  3. If the R.S. is an interrogative sentence or a question, then the R.V. is changed to ‘asked’ or ‘enquired’.
  4. The question mark is removed and the R.S. is changed into a statement.
  5.  If the R.S.  begins with a ‘wh – word’,  then the same wh-word is used in the indirect speech.

     D.S- He said to me, “Where do you live?”

     I.S.- He asked me where I lived.

  1. If the question starts with a helping verb, then we use ‘if’ or ‘whether’ in the indirect speech.

 D.S.- Ansh said to Misha, “Is it necessary for me to meet the Principal?”

 I.S- Ansh asked Misha whether it was necessary for him to meet the Principal.

Reporting imperative sentences

If the R.S. is an imperative sentence, the R.V. is changed into a word that expresses command, a wish, a request, or an advice.

E.g. D.S.-The teacher said to Nash, “Stop making a noise.”

        I.S.- The teacher ordered Nash to stop making a noise.

        D.S.-  He said, “ Let us go for a walk.”

        I.S. – He suggested that they should go for a walk.

Rule -8

Rules regarding imperative sentences:

Reporting commands or requests

  1. While changing direct speech into indirect speech the reporting verb is changed into – advised, begged, commanded, entreated, forbade, ordered, requested or threatened.
  2. Conjunction ‘to’ is used in positive sentences.

     Conjunction ‘ not to’ is used in negative sentences.

D.S.- Teacher said to the students, “Do not make a noise.”

I.S. – Teacher told the students not to make a noise.


Teacher forbade the students to make a noise.

Reporting imperative sentences with ‘let’

  1. If ‘let us’ means suggestion

Should’ is used and the reporting verb is changed into ‘suggested’ or  ‘proposed’.

D.S.- Helen said, “Let us go for a movie.”

 I.S. – Helen proposed that they should go for a movie.

ii) If ‘let us’ expresses a call to action

Then it is usually reported by urged/ advised

D.S. – The Principal said to his staff, “Let us attend the lecture.”

I.S. – The Principal urged his staff to attend the lecture.

iii) If ‘let’ is used to mean allow or permit. Then the verb let in the reported speech is retained or changed into may/ might/ may be allowed to/ might be allowed to

D.S.- I said to him, “ Let me go home.”

I.S. – I told him to let me go home.

         I told him that I might be allowed to go home. 

Rules regarding exclamatory sentences:

If the R.S. happens to be an exclamatory sentence, then:

  1. The reporting verb is changed into words like exclaimed, exclaimed with joy/ sorrow, cried out, blessed, prayed, wished, cried.
  2. The interjections like alas, bravo, curse it, hurrah and well are omitted and their sense is expressed by means of phrases.

Ah! or Alas! – Exclaimed with grief or sorrow

Aha! Hurray! – Exclaimed with joy

Bravo! – Applauded

How! Oh! What! – Exclaimed with surprise

Pooh! – exclaimed with contempt

Shit! Sorry! – exclaimed with regret

  1. Conjunction ‘that’ is used.
  2.  The sense of sentence is made assertive.

 D.S. He said,Alas! My cat is no more.

 I.S.-  He exclaimed with sorrow that his cat was no more.

D.S.- He said to us,” Bravo! You have done well.”

I.S.-  He applauded us by saying that we had done well.

D.S. – “What a beautiful scenery it is!” he said.

I.S. – He exclaimed with joy that it was a beautiful scenery.

Subject-Verb Agreement

He agrees with them.
They agree with him.

A Verb must agree with its Subject in Number and Person. A singular subject takes a singular verb; and a plural subject takes a plural verb.

Rules for Agreement of subject and verb:

1) Two or more singular subjects joined by ‘and’ usually take a plural verb.

E.g. – Raman and Harry work hard.

 Air and water are necessary for survival.

  Nancy and I were the hosts of the party.

  The author and the publisher were in a meeting.   

2)   If two nouns suggest only one idea or refer to the same person or thing then it will take a singular verb.

E.g. Slow and steady wins the race.

Beans and rice is her favourite dish.

 The horse and carriage is at the door.

Comfort and luxury has made him lazy.

Bread and butter is a wholesome breakfast.

 Her hard work and dedication has paid off.

The author and publisher, Mr Charles is here amongst us.

 3) Words joined to a singular subject by ‘with’ or ‘ as well as’, ‘together with’, ‘along with’ take a singular verb.

E.g.  Alex as well as  Sharon likes tea.

The house, with its furniture was burnt.  

 Vinn along with his friends is punished.

 I as well as Shirley am going to the park.

Bren as well as his family is shifting to Texas.

The Captain, with all his men, was drowned.

The doctor with his interns has reached the O.T.

The teacher as well as her students is in the class.

The boy with his parents is waiting for the teacher.

Verna with her friends wants to participate in the competition.

The officer as well as his subordinates was present at the meeting.

4) When two or more subjects in the singular are joined by ‘or’, ‘nor’, ‘either or’, ‘ neither nor’– the verb used is singular.

E.g. Jack or Tom is to blame.

Either he or I am to blame.

Either Robert or Arnold was absent.

Neither Robert nor Arnold was present.

5)  When two subjects of a sentence are joined by ‘not only’… ‘ but also…’, ‘ either or’, ‘neither nor’ the verb agrees with the latter subject.

E.g.- Neither Tom nor his friends have come.

Either my friend or I am going to buy this dress.

The farmer or his servants were responsible for the theft.

Not only your certificates but your marks also are important.

Neither Ritu nor her friends are willing to attend the function.

6) When a plural noun (in Prepositional Phrases) comes between a singular subject and its verb, the verb used is singular.

 E.g. The quality of apples was not good.

A combination of colours charms the sky.

  The bag of mangoes is too heavy for the child.

  Much of the hard work of the farmers has been wasted due to drought.

7) ‘ Either’, ‘Neither’, ’Each’, ‘Every’, ‘Everyone’, ‘many a’, ‘one of the’, ‘little’, ‘less’ generally take  a singular verb.

E.g. Either of the boys has done this.

Each of these boys is intelligent.

Neither of them was found guilty.

Each one of her paintings is fantastic.

Much of the homework is already done.

  Every man, woman and child was happy.

  Everyone, whom we invited, has turned up.

  Only one of the five contestants is going to win.

Thanks to metro rail, less of my time is spent on commuting.

8) Some words can refer to amount/quantity as well as number. When, these words refer to amount/ quantity, they take a singular verb. When these words refer to number, they take a plural verb.

None, a lot of, a great deal of, plenty of, most of, etc, are some such words.

  E.g. I] None of the work (amount) was complete.

 None of the strategies (number) have worked.

II] A lot of energy was (amount) wasted on finding the treasure.

 A lot of books have (number)been written.

III] A variety of music is (amount) available here.

  A variety of music albums are (number) available here.

IV] Plenty of help has (amount) been offered to the poor family.

Plenty of trees were (number) planted by students.

9)  A collective noun usually takes a singular verb.

E.g. This pair of scissors is very sharp.

A bunch of keys is kept on the table.

A large crowd makes me feel nervous.

A swarm of bees was buzzing around the tree.

However, collective nouns like – committee, assembly, jury, congress, team- may take a singular or plural verb depending on whether it is taken as singular or plural.

E.g. The committee was united in their opinion

The  committee were divided in their opinion.

My new pair of socks is very tight.

 My new socks are very tight.

The team has decided to follow the strategy.

The team were divided on following the strategy.

10) Some nouns, which are plural in form but singular in meaning, take singular verb.

 E.g. No news is good news.

Measles is a contagious disease.

Mathematics is an interesting subject.

Billiards is fast becoming a popular game.

Physics is considered to be a difficult subject.

 11) Some nouns are singular in form but plural in meaning. We use plural verbs with such nouns.

E.g. – The people are enjoying themselves.

The cattle were driven to the farm.

 The children are playing in the park.

  12) Class nouns like- cutlery, stationery, food, furniture take a singular verb.

E.g.  The food here is quite good.

 The cutlery was well arranged.

 The new furniture is pretty expensive.

  The stationary was available at a cheap price.

13) Weight, measure, time, distance take a singular verb.

  E.g. Five years is a pretty long time.

  A hundred rupees is not a big amount for him.

  Ten kilos of milk was consumed by the players.

  Only one-fourth of the police force was deployed.

14) When a plural noun is the name of one thing it takes a singular verb.

  E.g. ‘ The Arabian Nights’ is a famous book.

 ‘ The United States’ has a big army.

15) When a sentence starts with ‘here‘, ‘there‘ the subject is placed after the verb and will take a singular or plural verb depending on the subject.

E.g. There is a tiger in the forest.

Here are the books that you ordered.

16) Verbs which appear before subjects in interrogative sentences (questions) will be singular or plural according to the subject.

E.g. Where are my keys?

Does she know the answer?

Have they solved the problem?

Is she the girl who won the Quiz?

16. Indefinite pronouns like ‘everyone’, ‘ ‘someone’, ‘nobody’, ‘anyone’ take a singular verb.

E.g. Someone is at the door.

Nobody is perfect.

Has anyone seen my book?

Something is better than nothing.

Everybody was present at the meeting.


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Sentences can be divided into two primary groups – Affirmative or Positive, and Negative sentences.


An affirmative sentence simply states something.  It is any declaration that is positive. An affirmative sentence expresses the validity of truth of an assertion.

Jane is a girl. – Is an example of an affirmative sentence.

Jane is not a boy. – Is an example of a negative sentence.

An affirmative or positive sentence means something is so, while a negative sentence – which is its polar opposite – means something is not so.


 A sentence is usually made negative in English by placing the adverb ‘not’ after the finite verb. Such verbs are:

Be      –  (is/am/ are/ was/were)

Have  –  ( has/ had )

Can    –  (could )

Shall  –  (should)

Will  – ( would)

May  – (might)



How to make sentences negative:

  1. The verb ‘be’:

We put not after the various forms of the verb ‘be’.

 Affirmative – He is working.

Negative – He is not working.

In case of ‘will be’ and ‘shall be’, we put ‘not’ after ‘will’ and ‘shall.’

Will be – will not be, shall be – shall not be.

  • The verb ‘Have’ (has, had)

I have a pen.                          I have no pen.

                                                 I do not have a pen.

                                                 I don’t have a pen.

She has a pen.                       She has no pen.

                                                 She does not have a pen.

                                                 She doesn’t have a pen.

She had a pen.                       She had no pen

                                               She did not have a pen.

                                                She didn’t have a pen.            

  • Verb made of two or more words:

We put not after the first word.

She is painting.                             She is not painting.

He should take a break.             He should not take a break.

  • Simple Present Tense

We use either do not or does not with the root form of the verb.

I eat fruit daily.               I do not eat fruit daily.

She eats fruit daily.       She does not eat fruit daily.

[ he/ she / it – does]     [ I/ you /we / they  – do]

  • Simple past tense

We use did not with the root form of the verb:

She played baseball.          She did not play baseball.

They wrote essays.              They did not write essays.    

  • Imperative sentences (commands)

We put do not (don’t) in the beginning of the sentence:

Close the door.                              Do not(don’t) close the door.

Give her the book.                  Do not (don’t) give her the book.  

In spoken English the adverb ‘not’ is usually shortened to (n’t):

 Unshortened form                                   Shortened form

I am not                                                       I’m not

Is not                                                            Isn’t

Are not                                                         aren’t

Was not                                                       wasn’t

Have not                                                      haven’t

Has not                                                         hasn’t

Had not                                                        hadn’t

Do not                                                           don’t

Does not                                                       doesn’t

Did not                                                          didn’t         

Cannot                                                           can’t

Could not                                                       couldn’t                   

 Will not                                                         won’t

 Would not                                                    wouldn’t

Shall not                                                          shan’t

Should not                                                      shouldn’t

Must not                                                         mustn’t

Ought not                                                        oughtn’t

Need not                                                          needn’t

Dare not                                                           daren’t

May not                                                            mayn’t

Might not                                                         mightn’t  


AFFIRMATIVE                             NEGATIVE

I am a boy.                             I am (I’m) not a boy.

He is a doctor.                       He is not (isn’t) a doctor.

They are my friends.            They are not (aren’t) my friends.

She was late yesterday.      She was not wasn’t late yesterday.

He can speak French.          He cannot (can’t) speak French.

She will go now.             She will not (won’t) go now.

They may help us.                They may not (mayn’t) help us.

It might cure her.                  It might not (mightn’t) cure her.  

They ought to help her.     They ought not (oughtn’t) help her.

Forming negatives using do (does) not and did not.

AFFIRMATIVE                                  NEGATIVE

I like mangoes.                      I do not (don’t) like mangoes.

They live in London.            They do not (don’t) live in London.

He speaks Spanish.               He does not speak Spanish.

They tried hard.                    They did not try hard.

She bought a new pen.        She did not buy a new pen.

Do it now.                              Do not (don’t) do it now.

Call everybody.                     Do not (don’t) call everybody.


The negative question or interrogative negative is formed by first making the interrogative sentence and then placing the adverb ‘not’ after the subject. If the shortened form of (n’t) is used then it is placed with the finite verb before the subject.

The interrogative form of ‘I am not’ is ain’t (colloquial) or ‘I am not’ (formal).


She went to college yesterday.

Did he not go to the college yesterday?

Didn’t she go to the college yesterday?

He has been to Paris.

Has she not been to Paris?

Hasn’t she been to Paris?


Is Sheena reading?

Isn’t Sheena reading?

Sheena is reading, isn’t she?

Sheena is not reading, is she?

These questions may be answered with a ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

The last two Questions have been framed using Question tags.


Question tags are short questions added to the end of a sentence. A positive statement has a negative question tag and a negative statement has a positive question tag.

 She is beautiful, isn’t she?       

 He is not playing, is he?       

  • Positive statement           —–          negative question tag.
  • Negative  statement        ——         positive question tag.

Eg. All these students will do well, won’t they?

He did not believe me, did he?

Types of sentences based on structure.

It is a beautiful painting. (simple sentence)
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Sentence is the largest structural unit of a language. Sentences can be divided into three basic categories depending on its grammatical structure, i.e. the position and requirement of subject, verb etc.

  1. Simple Sentence
  2. Complex Sentence and
  3. Compound Sentence

Simple Sentence

 A simple sentence has one main clause. It has only one subject and one finite verb.

He is an artist.

In this sentence ‘he’ is the only subject, and ‘is’ the only finite verb.

( Finite verb – a verb that changes with person, number and tense. )

I like cars.                                              I like to drive cars.

She likes cars.                                      She likes to drive cars.

(I Like – He likes – finite verb)           (to drive – non finite verb)

Complex sentence

A sentence containing one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses is called a complex sentence.

They rested when evening came.

As the boxers advanced into the ring, the people said that they would not allow them to fight.

The people said. (main clause)

As the boxers advanced into the ring. (subordinate clause)

That they would not allow them to fight. (subordinate clause)

We may add more subordinate clauses (dependent clause) to make it more complex.

Adding  1 subordinate clause to the main clause.

Ronny went to school, though he did not want to.

Adding  2 subordinate clauses to the main clause.

Though Ronny went to school, he did not want to go, as he had not done his homework.

Adding  3 subordinate clauses to the main clause.

Though Ronny went to school, he did not want to go, as he had not done his homework and he will get punished.

Compound Sentence

A compound sentence contains two main clauses or independent clauses joined by a co-ordinating linker or conjunction.

He tried hard but he did not succeed.

This sentence consists of two independent clauses joined by a conjunction.

He tried hard. ( but)

He did not succeed.

Night came on and rain fell heavily and we all got wet.

This sentence consists of three independent clauses joined by conjunctions.

Night came on. (and)

Rain fell heavily. (and)

We all got wet.

Complex Compound

A complex- compound sentence contains one main clause and two or more subordinate clause that are connected with a co-ordinating linker.

The man said    that three workers had arrived   and    that four others were absent.

The man said                                   -(main clause)

 that three workers had arrived     – (subordinate clause)

 and                                                     -(co-ordinating linker)

 that four others were absent.        – (subordinate clause.)

One main clause and two subordinating clauses joined by a linker.

Compound complex

A compound complex sentence contains two main clauses, in which one main clause has a sub-clause.

The Maths syllabus is difficult  and  since it was implemented years agomany students have failed.

The Maths syllabus is difficult    -(main clause)

 And                                                   – (co-ordinating linker)

 since it was implemented years ago, – (subordinate clause)

many students have failed.                 – (main clause)

Examples of the five types of sentences based on structure.

Simple –  He loves books.

Compound He loves books and he often buys books.

ComplexHe loves books which are interesting.

Complex compound He loves books which are interesting and (which) have a lot of information.

Compound complex He loves books but as they are expensive he buys them rarely.


A card and an envelope.
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Three words ‘a’ ‘an’ and ‘the’ are called articles.

Articles are of two types:

  1. Indefinite Articles
  2. Definite articles
  1. Indefinite Articles – ‘A’ and ‘An’ are weakened form of one and are called Indefinite Articles as they do not point out to any particular person or thing.
  2. Definite article – ‘The’ is called the definite article because it points out some definite or particular person or thing.

Use of Indefinite articles ‘A’ and ‘An’:

Use of indefinite article ‘A’;

  • Before a word beginning with a consonant sound:

  A boy, a pen

  • Before a word beginning with the sound ‘yu’

A university, a union, a unicorn, a usage, a European, a unicorn

  •  Before a word beginning with the sound ‘wu’

A one-pound note, a one-eyed monster

  •  Sounded ‘h’ words

A horse, a hero, a holiday

Uses of ‘An’:

  • Before words beginning with a vowel sound

     An orange, an umbrella, an eagle, an ass

  • Before words beginning with a silent ‘h

An honest man, an hour, an heir

  •  Before words beginning with consonant letters but having vowel sound

An M.P, an M.A, an M.L.A, an S.P, an S.D.O, an L.L.B, an F.R.C.S, an S.O.S, an N.G.O, an L.C.D.

  The letters (F.L.M.N.S) are pronounced with a vowel sound in some words.

  • Before a singular countable noun.

 I saw a girl skipping in the park.

  • Before a single countable noun which stands for a group.

A woman has to work to live. A dog needs care.

  • In certain expressions of speed ratio and price.

A dozen oranges. A lot of people. A great deal of hardwork ensures success.

  • In expressions of speed ratio price.

Rupees 50 a kilo. Twice a day. Twenty kilometres a litre.

Definite Article ‘The’

We  use ‘the’  when we mean a particular person or thing.

Use of definite article ‘The

a) When we speak of a person or thing for the second time.

     Eg. Take a chair.

    Take the chair near the window

b) When it is very clear what we are speaking about, we use the.

     Eg. The moon is shining in the sky.

      The telephone is ringing.

      The door of the study room is locked.

c) We use the with  names of:

  •  rivers, seas, oceans, canals, mountain ranges, group of islands.

The Ganga, the Indian ocean, the Himalayas, the Maldivies.

  • Deserts, forests,

       The Thar, the Kalahari, the Sundarbans, the Sherwood Forest

  •  Well known buildings, holy books, news papers.

The Taj Mahal, the Gita, the Telegraph, The Times

  •  Trains , ships, aeroplanes.

The Orient Express, the Titanic, the British Airways

  • Musical instruments

       The violin, the guitar, the piano

  •   Some countries which suggests accumulation of units.

    The U.S.A , the U.K,  the U.A.E. the Punjab, the Sudan

  •   With superlatives.

     The most beautiful, the biggest

  •   With ordinals.

    The first, the last

  • With directions

The East, the North, the South, the West

  •   Adjectives to denote the whole class.

    The rich, the poor.

  •   Before names of races, groups, and communities.

     The Hindus, the Chinese, the English

  •   Before a surname to refer to a family in plural.

    The Smiths, the Gandhis

  •  Before a known person or thing.

The flower looks beautiful. Pass the sugar please.

  •   Before the names consisting of noun + of + noun.

    The Bay of Bengal, the Bay of Naples.

  •   Before a noun made definite with a phrase/clause.

      The ship of the desert, The girl in the room.

  •   Before parallel comparatives.

      The more, the merrier. The higher you go the cooler it gets.

  • To make a proper noun common.

           John is the Einstein of his class.

           Mumbai is the New York of the East.

Before a noun to make emphasis.

This is the time to act.            He is the authority to do so.

Omission of the article

We don’t use the with

  • Proper nouns,                                    
  • Nouns that name materials,
  • Nouns that name abstract qualities.

       [  unless they have been made particular. ]

We need water for drinking.

The water we drink must be pure.

Kashmir is famous for its beauty.

The beauty of Kashmir is very famous.

The beauty of Kashmir is very famous.
Photo by Tayyab Khan


Hurrah! We have won the match.


An interjection is a word of exclamation, expressing a sudden feeling or emotion. They are rather marginal to language. i.e. They are not grammatically connected with any other word in a sentence.

Ah! The earthquake has destroyed many towns.

Hello! How are you?

Hurrah! We have won the match.

Alas! My dog is dead.

Oh! You scared me.

Hush! Don’t make a noise.

Ouch! I have hurt my leg.

Damn! I have lost this game.

Fie!  I am sick of you and your lies.

Wow! What a beautiful scenery it is!

Phew! That was a narrow escape.

Goodbye! See you later.

  • An interjection expresses a sudden strong feeling.


Interjections can be classified into three types.

Cognitive interjections   – these words give us information about the feelings of the speaker.

Wow! She is looking so pretty.

Emotive interjections – These words express emotions, like disgust, sorrow and fear.

Eww, What a stench!

Volitative interjections– These words act as imperative expressions commanding, requesting or demanding something from the addressee.

Hush! The baby is sleeping.

 Feelings                                          Interjections   

Surprise           –     [  Oh!   Oops!  Wow!   Gee!  What!  Boo!  Woah!   OMG!  Gosh!]

Disgust             –     [ Ugh!    Phew!     Tut-tut!      Damn!   Eww!    Yuck!  ]

Appreciation   –     [Bravo!   Encore!    Yeah!    Boo-yah!    Woo-hoo!    ]

Hatred /anger –     [Fie!      Pooh !       Hah!      Aargh!        Eek!     Rats! ]

Delight              –    [Hurray!    Cheers!     Yippee!   Bingo!    Yay!     ]

Attention         –     [Psst!     Yoo-hoo!   Hey!    Ahem!     Erm!

Greetings         –   [Goodbye!     Hello!     Hi!    Ho!    Hey!  ]

Sorrow              –  [Alas!     Ah!      Puff!     Oh!     Tsk-tsk!  ]

Onomatopoeia –    [Splash!  Bang!  Boom!  Crack!]

Pain                   –     [Ow!    Ouch!    Aah! ]

Making silent  –     [ Hush!    Shhh!  ]  

Affection          –     [ Mwah!]

Certain groups of words are also used as interjections.

Ah me!      Be quite!       Bless you!      Bloody hell!      Excuse me!      For shame!       Good gracious!    Good grief!      My goodness!       Oh God!   Oh no!     Oh dear!     Uh- oh!     Uh-huh!     Thank God!    What’s up?  Well done!          


Interjections primarily play an emotive function and are hence not usually used for academic or factual writing. These words may appear at the beginning, middle or at the end of the sentence.

Beginning of the sentence:

Wow! What a pleasant surprise.

Wow, what a pleasant surprise!

Middle of the sentence:

Look at her, my goodness, she is virtually flying!

This was certainly, my gosh, your best performance.

End of the sentence:

So it is raining again, huh?             

Hope to see you soon, goodbye!                                       

Crack! Went the thunder.


Apples, grapes and bananas are good for health.

A conjunction is a word which joins words, phrases or clauses. Conjunctions may also be called joining words.

Two and two makes four.

He will pass if he works hard.

Did you know that she has won the competition?

I cannot see how she can win.


Conjunctions are mainly of two types:

  1. Coordinating conjunctions
  2. Subordinating conjunctions

The third subtype is Correlative conjunctions.


Coordinating conjunctions are words which connect units of equal status and function (ie. Coordinate or independent clauses)

{Independent clause – a part of a sentence that makes complete sense}

Kamal and Dave are good friends.

She reached the station in time but the train was late.

[for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (Fanboys)]are the main coordinating conjunctions. Some other  conjunctions are [ therefore, too,  either, , neither, however, nevertheless, so, then]

Coordinating conjunctions can be sub divided into four types.

  1. Cumulative orCopulative –   and, also, too, as well as, both…and

(These words merely add one statement to another)

I worked for a long time and did not rest.

  1. Alternative or  Disjunctiveeither…or, neither…nor.

(These words express a choice between two alternatives)

Either he is crazy or he is a genius.

  1. Adversative or Conjunctive Adverbsstill, yet, only, but, however, nevertheless, moreover, furthermore, otherwise, finally, consequently

(These words express opposition or contrast between two statements)

The tortoise was slow; however, he won the race.

  1. Illative  – therefore, for , so, then, so…then

(These words express an inference)

He must have neglected his studies; for he failed.


Subordinating conjunctions connect subordinate or dependent clauses in a sentence.

{ Dependent clause – part of a sentence that does not make complete sense on its own. It depends on the main clause to complete its sense.}

He failed to catch the train because he was late.

I cannot leave the shop until he comes.

[after, although, as , as if, as soon as, because, before, ere, if, how, like,  since, so that, that, than, till, though, unless, until, where, when , while, whither, why,] are subordinating conjunctions.

Subordinating conjunctions may be divided into different groups according to their meaning.

  1. Cause or Reasonbecause, as, since

As she was not at home, I came back.

  1. Conditionprovided, supposing, unless, as, if, whether

I will stay at home if it rains.

  1. Comparisonthat, as…as

He is as tall as his father.

  1. Contrastthough, although, however, even if

She may kill me, yet I will trust her.

  • Purposein order that, so that, that, lest

Oly practises hard so that she could win the prize.

  • Result or effect so…that

Sam sings so loudly that he never needs a microphone.

  • Time  – after , before, as soon as, as long as, since, till, until, while

He completed his work before he left.


Correlative conjunctions are conjunctions used in pairs.

As (so)….as  –  He is as brave as a lion.

 Both… and  –  She is both a writer and a soldier.

Either…or Either you word hard or fail.

Neither…norNeither Ron nor Rick agreed to do the shopping.

No sooner… than –  No sooner did she go out than it began to rain.

Such…as Such teachers as those inspiring students deserve respect.

Scarcely/ Hardly…when  –  I had scarcely began to read when the lights went off.

The same… as – Robert gets the same amount as his friend Bob.


Conjunctions, which merely join two parts of sentences must be distinguished from Relative Pronouns, Relative Adverbs and Prepositions, which also connect words and act as linkers but do more than merely joining sentences.

This is the masterpiece that Picasso painted. (Relative Pronoun)

Here that refers to the masterpiece and acts as a pronoun.

This is the place where Shakespeare was born. (Relative Adverb)

Here where modifies the verb was born and joins the two parts of the sentence.

Dina and Mina went to the market. (Conjunction)

Here and simply joins two parts of the sentence and does no other work.


Rule 1. In case of sentences having more than two words or phrases put comma after each item except the last one.

I like fish, meat, eggs and sweet.

Rule2. In case of only two words or phrases no comma.

He often visits orphanages and old age homes.

Rule 3. I case of two coordinating clauses joined by a conjunction, put comma after the first independent clause just before the conjunction.

Independent clause, conjunction independent clause.

I’m not very hungry, so I will not eat now.

Rule 4. In case of subordinating conjunctions put comma after the dependent clause only if it is followed by the independent clause.

Dependent clause,subordinating conjunction independent clause.

Independent clause subordinating conjunction dependent clause.

After her results, she joined the army. { She joined the army after her results.(no comma)}

Rule 5. In case of conjunctive adverbs, put semi colon (;) after the first independent clause and a comma (,) after the conjunction, just before the second independent clause.  

Independent clause; conjunctive adverb, independent clause.

He went to the station; however, he failed to catch the train.

Make hay while the sun shines.

Comments regarding improvements and modifications would be highly appreciated.

References : High school English Grammar; New Madhyamik Grammar and composition.


The books are on the table.

A preposition is a word which shows the relation between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in a sentence.

1) The books are on the table.

‘On’ shows the relation between the bag and the books.

2) She painted the fabric ‘with’ colours.

With’ shows the relation between the fabric and colours.

i) There is a teacher in the class.

Here the preposition ‘in’ joins a noun to another noun.

ii) She is fond of music.

Here preposition ‘of’ joins a noun to adjective.

iii) The dog jumped off the wall.

Here the preposition ‘off’ joins a noun to a verb.


1] Simple preposition or preposition proper

2] Compound preposition

3] Complex or phrase preposition


These are made of one or two syllable and some may have adverbial roles. Common simple prepositions are:

About         before             down             on         through

Above           behind            during           out         to

Across     below     for    over        under

After     beneath     from     past    until

Along      beside      in        round      up

Amid    between   of        since        with

Among   beyond    off       till           at

Around   by                             


Compound Prepositions are formed by making compound of two simple prepositions.

In + to = into                 with + in = within

On + to = onto          with + out = without

out +side =outside 

through+out= throughout

in + side =inside

on + round = around              

up + to = upto            by + side = beside


Double Prepositions : outside of, from behind, out of, from beneath.

3] COMPLEX PREPOSITION (Prepositional phrase)

These two or three-word phrases function in the same way as simple prepositions.

According   apart from        along with

As to         as for          at variance with

Because of     by dint of  by means of

By virtue of      due to         for the sake of

In accordance with        in case of                       in charge of

In course of                   in order to                      in front of

In connection with        in favour of                   in lieu of

In response to                in spite of                      in view of

Instead of                      on account of                on behalf of

Together with               with a view to                with reference to


Participial prepositions

These present participles which are used without any noun or pronoun attached to them function as prepositions.

Barring, concerning, considering, during, notwithstanding, pending, regarding, respecting, touching.

E.g. Bears hibernate during winter.

        He said nothing regarding his promotion.

         Considering the weather, we decided to stay home.

        She was held in custody pending trial.



 Prepositions do not stand alone but needs complement. The complements of preposition can be a noun, pronoun, other parts of speech or a clause.

Noun-                         He kept the book on the table.

Pronoun-                    I spoke to him politely.

Adverb-                      They had reached by then.

-ing clause                  He was surprised at her saying this.

Wh-clause                  She was shocked at what he did.


After the verbs – arrive, come, go, get, take, bring, send – the word ‘home’ is used as an adverb so it does not usually take a preposition.   

He takes home a good salary.

Bring home an LCD T.V. and enjoy weekend movies.


Prepositions usually come before its complement but sometimes it is placed after the complement.

Wh- structures                        What are they looking at?

Relative clause                        That is the house that Jack built.

Passive structures                    He hates being laughed at.

Infinitive structures                 It is a nice place to live in.      


Prepositions can be classified into six types according to relationship with other words.

1. Place / position –   at, in, on, by, between, among

2. Time                 – at, in, on by, during, for, from, since, within

3. Movement        – through, across, along

4. Direction          – at, in, from, into, to, towards

5. Agent/ instrument or mannerby, with, for, in, from

6. Cause/ reason    – for, from, of, with

1] PLACE AND POSITION    [ at, in , on, by, between, among]

At   – A point  in space   – at the corner/end/ side/exit

          Name of bulding/ public place – at the Taj Mahal.

           Less known town/ village        – at home, at school.

In  –   Large town, country  –  in New York, in  France

          A point  within area  –   in the street, in the newspaper

 (In the end – finally, At the end -a point where something stops.)    

On – Position touching surface  –  on the table/ on the river

         Supported by someone or something- on the head/on a pole

         Position before page           –  on page 10

By – nearness                             –  by the door/ by the stream

Between– In the middle of two things – between two people.

Among–in the middle of more than two things – among the trees.

{Other prepositions which indicate position- below, by, under, behind, in front of, on top of, above, over}

TIME  [  in, at, on, by, for , during, from, since, within]

In –  Month                             – in March, in December

       Year                                 – in 2007, in 2020

       Decade                             – in the 70’s

       Centuries                          – in the 12th Century

       Parts of the day                – in the afternoon, in the evening

       Seasons                            – in spring, in winter

       After some time              –  in an hour/minute/day/year/month

                                                   In a week

On – Dates                           – on 2nd October

        Specific days                –  on a rainy day, on New year’s Day            

        Days of the week         –  on Wednesday/ Sunday

        Immediately after something – on his departure

{‘In time’ means with enough time to spare. ‘On time’ as pre planned, or at the nick of time.}

By – not later than the given time    – by 4 o’clock/ by tomorrow

At – Part of day                              – at night/ dawn /noon

During – throughout the period       – during winter/ summer

Since – From a specified time in the past  – since Sunday/ noon

For – Duration of time                      – for a year, for two hours

From –    Time  of starting               – From Friday – starting till end            – From 3pm to 6pm

Within     –  not later than the specified time  – within an hour

{ ‘Since’ refers to the starting point of an action. ‘For’ refers to a period of time or its duration}

DIRECTION   [  at, in into, from, towards, to]

From –  Starting point                 –  from college/ from the market

Towards – in the direction of       –  towards her mother

To   – in direction of something   –  to the school/ to his home

Into – moving to a point within something- into the river

In – Towards geographical direction – in the north

At – throwing towards                  – threw a pebble at the bird

MOVEMENT        [ through,  across, along ]

Along  –  Parallel or close to something –   along the bank of river

Across –  in front of or on something     – across the lane

Through –  from one end to another       –  through the village


For –    As a reward                         –  for his courage/  for $ 50

In   –   Showing medium material   –  in cash/ in ink/pen/pencil

By  –   Person who created it           – by Shelly/ by Shakespeare    

          Means of transport/ transfer – by car/train/air,   by cheque

From  –   Material                           –  from wool/paper/wood

With   – Instrument                         -with a knife/ with a periscope

CAUSE/REASON      [for , from ,of ,with]

Of      –   Cause                           – She is proud of her beauty.

For    –   Reason                         –  Birbal is famous for his wit.

From –   Reason of something   – He is suffering from jaundice.

With  –  because of something   – He is shaking with laughter.

Prepositions with different uses

At – place, time, direction

By – Agent, manner, time, place

On– place, time, reason

In  – place, time, direction, manner,

About – approximation, subject, place,

For – place, reason, agent, time

From – Direction, time, manner, reason

Of   –  Position, cause, origin, measurement

Out of – Place, cause, origin, condition

To – Direction, time, possible range.

With – instrument, reason, material, company

Words followed by appropriate Prepositions:

Abide – by, at, in, with                       adequate  – to / for  

Abound – in, with                               adapted  –  to / for / from

Absent – from                                     adjacent  – to  

Absorbed – in                                      adhere –  to

Absent – from                                     admit   – of/ to

Abstain – from                                    advantageous – to

Access – to                                          affection   – for

Accompanied – by, with                     affectionate  –  to

According – to                                    afraid –  of

According – to                                    affected   – by

Acquainted – with                               agree  –  with/ to / on

Accountable – to                                  alarmed  – at

Account – for                                       alien  – to

Accused – of                                        alight  –  from / on

Acquit – of                                           alive   –  to

Alliance   – with                                   aloof  –  from

Amazed  – at                                         ambiton   –  for

Amount  –  to                                        ambitious  – of     

 Amused  – at                                        angry  –  with/ about/ at

Annoyed  –  at/ with                             answer   –  to/ for

Anxious   –  about/  for                         apologise – to / for

Appeal – to / for / against                     appetite  – for

Apply – to/ for                                      approve – of

Apt  –  at / in                                          aptitude – for

Apprehensive – about/ of                      appropriate  – to/ for

Apropos (with reference to)  – of          arrangement – with/ for

Arrive –  at/ in                                        ascribe   to

Aspiration    – for                                   assent –  to

Associate – with                                    attach  –  to

Attack   –   on                                         attend  –  to/  upon

Attribute  –  to                                        authority  –   on / over

Avail   –  of                                            available    –   to


Bad  –  at                                                beg  – of /for

Believe – in                                            beneficial –  to

Bent  –  on                                              bestow  –  on / upon

Beware  –  of                                          blind – of/ in / to

Blessed   –  with                                     boast  –  of

Born   –    of                                           bound   –    for

Burden –  with                                        busy   –   with


Callous – to                                        capable –  of

Capacity  – for                                    care  – for/ of

Cause – of                                          cautious – of

Certain – of                                        caution  –  against

Charge  –  of/ against                         claim – to

Clear  – of                                          cling –  to

Close  – to                                          clothed – in

Coincide  – with                                 comment  – on

Compare  – with                                 compensate  –  with/ for

Competente – for                               compete  –  with

Complain  – to/ of / about                  composed   – of

Conceal  –   from                               conceive  –  of

Condemn  –  to/ for                            confident –  of

Confer   –  on                                     confined  –  in / to                                                                                                

Conform  –  with                               congenial  – to

Congratulate  –  on                            conscious   –   of

Consist  –  of/ in                                consistent  – with

Consult  –  with                                 contact  –  with

Contrast   –   with                              convince   –   of

Connive  –  at                                    contrary  –  to

Contribute  –   to                               control   over

Correspond  –  to/ with                      count   –   for

Credit   –  to/ with                              cure    –    of


 Deaf  –  in/ to                                    deal  –  in/ with

Debar  –  from                                    decide  –  on 

Dedicate  –  to                                    defend  –   from

Deficient  –  in                                   deficiency  – of

Delight  – in  / at                                deliver   – to / from

Depend  –  upon/ o                            deprive  – of

Derive  –  from                                  descend – from

Deserving  – of                                  desire – for

Desirous  – of                                    despair – of

Detach –  from                                   deter  –  from

Devoid   – of                                      devoted  – to

Die – of /by from/for/in/through       differ – from / with

Difference – between                        different – from    

Difficulty  – with                               disappoint – in /of

Disappointed – with                          discussion – with

Disagree – with                                 disgrace – to

Disgust – with                                   dislike  – for

Dispense  – with                                displease  – with/ at / by

Displease  –  with / at/ by                  dispose – of

Dispute – with / about                       disqualified – for / from

Dissent – from                                   dressed – in

Dissimilar – to                                   dissuade – from

Distinguish  – between/ from             divert  –   from

Divide  – into                                      doubt – about/ of

Due – to                                              dull – at / of                                                                                                               

Dwell – in/ upon                                 dye – with


Eager – for/ after                                 eligible  –  for

Emerge  –   from                                  encroach  –  upon

End  –  in                                              endow  – with

Engage   – with/ in to                           enter  –  into / upon / for

Entertain –  with                                   entitle  – to

Entrust –  with                                      envy – of/ at

Envious  –  of                                       equal – in / with / to

Essential – to/ for                                 escape  – from

Excel  – in                                             example  –  of

Exception  –  to/ of                               exchange –  with / for          

Exclude  –  from                                   exclusive   –  of

Excuse  –  from/ for                              exempt    –   from       

Expect   –  from / of                              experience  – of / in

Expert  –  at / in / on                              explain  –  to

Expose   –   to


Faith   –  in                                               faithful  –  to

False  – to                                                 familiar  –  with

Famous  –   for                                         fatal  – to

Favour   – of                                             favourable  –  to / for

Fear  – of                                                  feel   – for

Fight  –  with / over/ against                     fit   for

Fond  –  of                                                 Fondness –  for

Foreign   –  to                                            forgetful   –  of

Free  –  from/ of                                        frightened  – of /at

Frown  –  on / at                                         full –  of


Gifted  – with                                              glad  –  at/ about / of

Glance  –  at/  over                                      glory   –  in

Good   –  at/ for                                           grateful   –  to/ for

Greedy  –  of  / for                                       greed  – of / for

Grieve – at / for /over                                 grumble  –  at / over

Guard  –  against                                         guess – at 

Guilty –  of


 Happen to                                                    hanker  – after

hatred – of/ for                                             harmful  –  to

hear  –  of / from                                           heed   –  to

heir  –  to                                                       hide   –  from

hinder  – from                                               hint –  at   

hope   -for                                                     hostile    –  to

hunt   –  for / out                                            hunger  –  for           


Identical –  with                                           ignorant   –  of

Immaterial – to                                            ill  –  of/ with                                                            

Immersed –  in                                             immune  –  to

Impart  –  to                                                 impart   –  to

Impatient  –  of / for                                    import  – from     

Import   –  from                                           impose  –  upon

Impress  –   with                                          indulge  –  in / with

Infer  –   from                                              incentive  –  to

Inclination  –  to                                          include  –  in

Indebted  –  to                                             inclusive  –  of

Independent  –  of                                       indifferent  –  to

Inferior  –  to                                               infested  –  with

Influence  – with / over/ upon                     inform   –   of                                              

Inform   – of                                                infuse  –  into

Innocent  –  of                                             inquire – about/into/for     

Insensible –  to                                            insist  –  upon 

Inspire   –  with                                           interest  –  in

Interfere  –  with / in                                   intimate  –  with

Introduce  –  to / into                                  intrude – into /upon

Invited  –  to                                               involved – in


 Jealous  –  of                                               jeer  –  at

Jest  –  about                                                join  – in / with

Jump – at / to                                              junior  –  to   


Keen – on                                                    key  – to

Kind  –  to / of                                              knock –  at


Lack  – of / in                                               lame  – of

Lament  –  for / over                                    laugh  –  at

Lavish  –  in / with  / upon                           liable  –  to/ for

Likeness  –  to / of                                       liking  – for

Live – in/ at/ on/ by/ for/ with                     long  –  for

Lost  – to/ in                                                 loyal  –  to


Mad  – with / about                                   marry  –  to

Match  –   for                                             meditate  –  upon

Meet  –   with                                             menace  – to

Mindful  –  of                                             mix – in / with

Mourn – for                                               moved  – to

Muse – on                                              


Natural  – to                                               necessity – for / of/ to

Necessary  – for/ to                                    need – of / for

Neglect – of / for                                       negligent – of

Negotiate  – with                           


Object – to                                                objection –to/ against

Oblige – to / for                                        obstacle – to

Occupied – with/ in                                  occur – to

Offend  – against                                       offended  – with

Offensive – to                                           open  – to

Opportunity  –  for                                    oppose  – to

Opposite  – to                                            opposition  –  to

Originate  – in/ from                                  overcome  –  with

Overwhelm  –  with                                   owe  –  to


Parallel  –  to                                              part – from/ with

Partake – in                                                partial  – to

Participate  – with/ in / about                     passion – for

Patient  –  with                                           peace – with

Particular – about                                      passion – for

Patient  –  with                                           peace  –  with

Peculiar – to                                               peculiar  – to

Permit – of                                                 persist – in

Pity –  for                                                    play – on / with

Plead – for / with                                        pleased – with

Plunged – in                                               polite – in

Poor  – in                                                    popular  – with / for

Precaution – against                                   prefer  – to

Prejudice – against                                     prepare – for

Present – with                                            preside- at/ over            

Pretend – to                                                prevent  – from

Prey –  on / to                                              pride – in / on

Proud – of                                                   prior – to

Proceed – with /from/ against                     proficient – in

Profit – by                                                   profitable – to

Prohibit  – from                                           prompt – in

Prone  – to                                                   proof – against

Proportionate – to                                       protect – from/ against  Provide – against/for/with                           protection – against   pursuance  – of                                           


Qualify – for                                               quick – at

Quarrel – with/ over/ about                        quest  – for


Ready – for/ at /with                                   reason – for/ with

Rebel – against                                            reckon – with / on

Reconcile – with /to                                    recourse  – to

Recover – from                                           reduce – to

Refer – to                                                    reflect – upon

Refrain – from                                            regard – for

Rejoice – in / at                                           related – to

Relation – to/ between/ with                       relevant – to

Relieved – from/of                                      rely – on

Remarkable – for                                         remedy – for / against

Remind – of                                                 render – into\

Repent – of                                                  repentance –  for

Replace – by / with                                      replace – by / with

Reply  –  to                                                   reproach – for

Require  – of / from                                      resign – to

Required – to                                               resolve–into/upon                                    

Respectful – to                                             restore – to 

Responsible – for /to                                    rest – with

Restrict – to                                                  retire  – from/ to        

Result – of / from/in                                     revenge – on 

Reward – with                                              rich – in

Rid – of                                                         rob – of

Rude – to/ about    


Sacred – to                                                   safe – from

Satisfaction – in/at/with/ of                         satisfy – with

Search – for/ of                                            secure – from/against

Seek – for/ after/ from                                 senior – to

Sensible – of                                                sensitive – to

Sentence – to                                                short – of

Shrink – from                                               silent – about

Sick – of                                                       similar – to

Similarity  – to/between                                side – with                                                                                                                                            

Slave – of / to                                               slow- about/at/down       

Smell – of                                                     smile – at/ upon

Snatch  – at                                                   sorry – for/about Spread – out/over                                         stain – on

Stare – at                                                      start – for/ from

Stick – at/ to                                                 strange – to

Subject – to/ of /for                                      stoop – to

Submit – to                                                   subordinate – to

Subscribe – to                                               subsequent – to

Subsist – on                                                  substitute – for

Succeed – in/to                                             succumb – to

Sufficient – for                                              suffer – from

Suitable – for / to                                          supply – to / with

Superior – to                                                 supplement – to

Sure – of                                                        surprise – at

Suspect – of                                                   suspicious – of

Suspend – from                                             sympathy – for/ with

Sympathise – with                                         sympathetic – to

Synonymous – with


Talk – to/ about                                            tamper – with

Taste – of                                                      teem – with

Testify – to                                                   thankful  – to/for

Think – of/ about /on/ over                          thirst – for

Tide – over                                                   tired – of

Tolerant – of /towards                                  touch – on/ with

Treat – of / to                                                tremble – with

True – to                                                        trust – to/with/in

Typical – of


Unaware – of                                                 unconscious – of

Unite – with                                                   urge – upon

Use – of                                                         used – for/ to

Useful – to                                            


Vary – from                                                    versed – in

Vested – with                                                  vexed – with

Victim – of / to                                                View – on/ to


Wait – for/ upon                                             weak – in

Weakness – for                                               want – of / for


Yearned – for                                                 yield – to


Zeal – for                                                        Zest – for


Rules for usage

i) Do not use infinitive with certain words which require a preposition followed by a Gerund (verbal noun).

She is addicted to smoking.(not-to smoke)

He assisted me in rowing the boat.

I am fond of reading books.

ii)  Sometimes both constructions are possible.

She was afraid of telling the truth.

She was afraid to tell the truth.

iii) Certain words always take the infinitive.

He advised us to leave the place.

I hope to get the first prize.

iv) Prepositions are  sometimes wrongly omitted:

   What use is it?    [incorrect]

   Of what use is it? [correct]

v) Prepositions are sometimes inserted where they are not required.

 Where have you been to? [incorrect]

 Where have you been?      [correct]

He jumped into the river.


She is writing neatly,

An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

We may say that it adds to the meaning of a verb, adjective or an adverb.

1)Philip runs quickly.

In this sentence the adverb quickly modifies the verb runs. It tells us about the manner in which Philip runs.

2) This is a very sweet apple. In this sentence the adverb very modifies the adjective sweet. It tells us to what degree the apple is sweet.

3) Sharah sings quite sweetly. In this sentence the adverb quite modifies the adverb sweetly. It tells us how far or to what extent she sings sweetly.

Types of adverb:

i) Adverbs of Manner

ii) Adverbs of Time

iii) Adverbs of Place

iv) Adverbs of Frequency

v) Adverbs of Degree or Quantity

vi) Adverbs of Reason

vii) Adverbs of Affirmation or Negation

viii) Adverbs of Certainty

ix) Relative adverbs

x) Interrogative adverbs

xii) Focusing Adverbs


  Adverb of Manner (how-adverbs) tells us how or in what manner an action is done.

 The soldiers fought bravely.

  He did it manually.

  The story is well written.

  She was agreeably disappointed.

  Thus he succeeded.

[This class includes nearly all those Adverbs which are derived from Adjectives and end in –ly.]


Adverb of place (where adverbs) show where or at what place the action is done.

The meeting was held here.

Go there.

The doctor is out.

Is Mr John within?

Walk backward.

Stop here.

They went upstairs.


Adverb of time (when-adverb) tells us when or at what time an action is done.

It rained yesterday.

The guests will arrive soon.

The boy arrived late in class.

Vinni comes here daily.

Wasted time never returns.

Mr. Smith formerly lived here.


An adverb of frequency (How often- adverb) tells us how often or how frequently an action is done.

He visits us daily.

She spoke to me twice.

They often play cricket.

He seldom comes here.

She always cooks dinner.

I have not seen him once.

She frequently comes late.

The messenger came again.


These adverbs (how much or to what degree- adverbs) tells us to what extent an action is done.

I fully agree with you.

He was too careless.

The glass is almost full.

They treated him most cruelly.

He is good enough for my purpose.

She was altogether mistaken.

Things are no better now.

She sings pretty well.

I am rather busy.

You are quite wrong.

I am so glad.

We are fully prepared.

You are partly correct.


Adverb of reason (why-adverb) tells us why an action has taken place.

She wanted to buy a pen therefore she went out.

He is sick hence unable to go to school.

The work was not done in time consequently the project failed.


These adverbs affirm or negate an action.(yes, no, surely, perhaps)

You are surely mistaken.

He has certainly done it.

I do not know him.

He is not busy.

I have not done it.

‘Yes’ and ‘No’ are generally classified as adverbs. They are in fact substitutes for a whole sentence, by a process where words once used are understood as repeated. This process is called ellipsis.

Q: Have you reached there?

A: Yes.( I have reached.)

Q: Are you feeling sick?

A: No. (I am not feeling sick.)


Adverb of certainty (how sure-adverbs) tells us how sure we are of something.

It will probably rain tomorrow.

Perhaps the train is late.

She is definitely late.


 Relative adverbs like relative pronouns introduce adjective clause.

Tell them the reason why you lied.

I know the street where she lives.

Do you know when the chief guest will arrive?


An interrogative adverb not only modifies some words but begins a question.

When will he come? (Time)

How many people are there? (number)

How far must we travel? (degree)

Why was he upset? (reason)

Where is the market? (place)


These adverbs ‘point to’ one part of a clause.

We are only going for a day.

He has even gone to the President.

The crowd consisted of mainly students.

According to their usage adverbs are divided in to three classes.

1)Simple adverbs. – You are quite right.

2) Interrogative adverbs – Why are you late?

3) Relative adverbs –I remember the house where I was born.

Formation of adverbs:

From the viewpoint of formation . Adverbs may be divided into four categories.

1) Simple formation- fast, very, too

2) Derivative ( formed by adding ‘ly’ suffix.) – slowly, usually, gracefully

3) Compound ( formed by joining two words) – somewhere -> some + where, anywhere -> any+where

4) Composite (adverbials or phrases working as adverbs)- at last, on foot, at least.

Forms of adverbs

Some words are used both as adverbs and adjectives in the same form.

ADJECTIVES                          ADVERBS

She came by the back entrance.                  She came back.

She faced little problem while trekking.                    She is little known outside U.S.

It was a hard sum.                                                      He works hard to earn money.

She is the best teacher.                                               She behaves best in the class.

I am an early riser.                                                       He rises early.

He is the only child.                                                     You can only guess.

Comparison of adverbs

Some adverbs like adjectives have three degrees of comparison.

  Positive   Comparative  Superlative

Fast           Faster            Fastest Long          longer              longest  hard         harder          hardest Soon          sooner      soonest           Swiftly  moreswiftly  mostswiftly   Skillfully more skillfully most skillfully Early         earlier                 earliest

Position of Adverbs

i) Adverbs of Manner are usually placed after the verb or object if there is one:

  He is walking slowly

The boy is running fast.

  She writes letters well.

  He does his work carefully.

ii) Adverb phrases of place and time are also placed after the verb or object if any.

  She will go there.

  He searched everywhere.

  She met me yesterday.

They are going to Paris next month.

iii) In case of two or more adverbs. The normal order is – Adverb of manner; Adverb of place;  

Adverb of time.

We should go there tomorrow evening.

She danced beautifully at the function last evening.

iv) Adverbs of frequency are normally put between the subject and the verb.

 He never goes to the zoo.

 I quite agree with you.

 She has never seen a lion.

 We usually go to sleep by nine.

v) The verb enough is placed before the word it modifies.

 He was rash enough to drive fast.

 She sang loud enough to be heard by all.

vi) The word only is usually placed after the word it modifies.

 I worked only four hours.

 She did only two sums.

However in spoken English only is placed before the word it modifies.

 She only worked two sums.

 I only slept for three hours.


Adjectives are describing words. It is a red book.

Definition: An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun and adds something to its meaning by acting as a pre modifier or post modifier. (Adjective means added to.)

E.g. It is a red book.

The book is red.

 Types of adjectives:

1) Adjectives of Qualityshows the kind or quality of a person or thing. E.g.   red, big, heavy, tall.

2) Adjectives of Quantityshows how much of a thing is meant.  some, much, enough, all.

3) Adjectives of Number: shows how many persons or things are meant.  eight, many, all, first.

a) Definite numeral adjectives: i)Cardinals: one, two three.

                                                       ii) Ordinals: first, second, third.

b) Indefinite numeral adjectives: E.g.  some, all, few, many, several.

c) Distributive numeral adjectives: E.g. each, every, either, neither. 

Demonstrative adjectives: E.g. This, That, These, Those, Such.

Interrogative Adjectives: E.g. Which, What, whose (followed by noun)

Possessive Adjectives:  E.g. my, your, her, his.

Emphasizing adjectives: E.g. own, very.


Three football players.

Common Rules:

i)Number is usually placed before other adjectives. E.g. Eleven cricket players. Third highest mountain.

ii) Adjectives denoting size, length, height comes first.  E.g. A square glass table.  A big blue house.

iii) Adjectives denoting judgments and attitudes comes first. E.g. A wise, handsome, young man.

iv) We place colour, origin, material, purpose before noun. E.g. A white, Chinese, porcelain, Ming vase.

v) Commas are placed between sequences of similar adjectives. Often before the last adjective and is used. E.g. She is a tall, fair, and beautiful girl.

Some adjectives can act as noun and are used with ‘The

The rich, The poor etc.

Form: Adjectives can be simple or derivative. Derivative adjectives can be formed by adding adjective suffixes like, -ible, -able, -ful, -ic, -ish, ive, -ous, -y etc.

Most common adjectives have three forms in three degrees:

   POSITIVE               |                                  COMPARATIVE              |                      SUPERLATIVE

   Good                                                            better                                                   best

    Bad                                                             worse                                                   worst

    Tall                                                              taller                                                     tallest

    Pretty                                                         prettier                                                 prettiest     

    Intelligent                                                  more intelligent                                  most intelligent

    Common                                                    commoner                                           commonest        

    Silly                                                             sillier                                                     silliest              

    Grey                                                            greyer                                                   greyest

   Well known                    better known/more well known                   best known/most well known



Positive degree of adjectives simply tells us about the quality of a person or thing.

E.g. Ron is tall.

 If his friend Mark is also of the same height and there is no comparison, we may say:

Ron is as tall as Mark.  In positive degree we use ‘   as _____ as,’ to show similarity in quality.


Comparative degree compares the quality between two things or people.

E.g. Ron is taller than Anna.

Comparative degree denotes a higher degree of quality than the positive. Usually ‘er’, ‘more’ along with ‘than’ is used in comparison.


Hannah is the tallest among the friends; she is also the most beautiful.

Superlative degree denotes the highest of the quality and is used when more than two things are compared. Usually ‘est’,’most’ along with ‘the’ is used in superlative sentences.

This is the tallest building in this area.