ACTIVE and PASSIVE VOICE

Voice refers to the form of verb which indicates whether the subject is the doer of the action or the receiver of the action. It shows whether a transitive verb acts or is acted upon. A transitive verb has two voices.

Active: Arav paints a picture. Passive: A picture is painted by Arav. Photo by cottonbro on Pexels.com
  1. Active voice
  2. Passive Voice

ACTIVE VOICE

A verb is said to be in the active voice when the emphasis is on the doer or the subject. We say that the verb is in the active voice when the subject is the doer of the action.

 Example:      Arav                  paints        a picture.

                      Subject (doer) ↑ –    verb↑ 

Here Arav is the doer of the action. The verb ‘paints’ is said to be in the active voice. 

PASSIVE VOICE     

A verb is said to be in the passive voice when the emphasis is on the receiver or the object. We say that the verb is in the passive voice when the subject is the receiver of the action.

Example :    A picture                        is painted      by        Arav.

                     Subject (receiver) ↑       verb↑ 

Here the subject is a picture. The verb ‘painted is said to be in the passive voice. The subject is acted upon or suffers the action.      

  [  Active = doing        :      Passive = suffering or receiving  ]

CHANGE OF VOICE

The following changes are done while changing a sentence from active voice to passive voice.

  • The object and subject change their places in the passive voice.

                                                 (Active verb form)

Active:       The cat                    chased                        the mouse.

Passive:      The mouse              was chased     by       the cat.   

                                               (Passive verb form)

  • A form of the helping (Be verb) is used according to the tense, number and person of the subject.
            ACTIVE VOICE              PASSIVE VOICE
Arav paints a picture.A picture is painted by Arav.
Arav paints two pictures.Two pictures are painted by Arav.
Arav painted a picture.A picture was painted by Arav.
  • . The past participle of the verb is used after the helping verb.
  • The preposition ‘by’ is added where the agent is important and necessary to complete the sense.

E.g. a) Active :      Arav stole my pendrive.

           Passive :     My pendrive was stolen by Arav.

        b)  Active :    Someone stole my pendrive.

             Passive :   My pendrive was stolen.     (as the agent the agent is not important we do not use ‘by’)

  • If an active verb is followed by a preposition, it is retained when the voice is changed into passive.

              Active: The teacher gave question papers to the students.

              Passive: Question papers were given to the students by the teacher.

  • When the active verb has two objects, one direct and the other indirect, either of them becomes the subject and the other is retained as object in the passive voice.

              Active: Sal gave me a book. [‘Me’ – indirect object, Book – direct object.]

              We may use either of the objects as the subject in the passive voice.

              Passive: A book was given to me by Sal.

              Or

             Passive : I was given a book by Sal.

USE OF ACTIVE VOICE

Active Voice is used when the doer of the action is to be made prominent and we know the doer of the action.

USE OF PASSIVE VOICE

Passive voice is used when we do not know who the doer of the action is.

          My purse was stolen at the shopping mall.

It is used when the action is more important than the doer of the action.

         The pandemic started in December 2019. (we are more interested in the action)

 CHANGING ACTIVE VOICE TO PASSIVE VOICE

          TENSE       ACTIVE VOICE           PASSIVE VOICE
Simple Present He flies a kite.A kite is flown by him.
Present ContinuousHe is flying a kite.A kite is being flown by him.
Present PerfectHe has flown a kite.A kite has been flown by him.
Simple pastHe flew a kite.A kite was flown by him.
Past ContinuousHe was flying a kite.A kite was being flown by him.
Past perfectHe had flown a kite.A kite had been flown by him.
Simple futureHe will fly a kite.A kite will be flown by him.
Future ContinuousHe will be flying a kite.No passive voice
Future PerfectHe will have flown a kite.A kite will have been flown by him.

Changing Simple Present/ Past/ Future sentences into Passive Voice.

Object of active voice + be-verb + past participle (V3) + agent

Simple Present –   A kite is flown by him.

Simple Past       –   A kite was flown by him.

Simple Future   –   A kite will be flown by him.

Changing  Present/ Past Continuous Sentences into Passive – Voice

Object of active voice + be- verb+ being + past participle (V3) + agent

Present Continuous  –  A kite is being flown by him.

Past Continuous        –  A kite was being flown by him.

(No Future continuous Passive Voice)

Changing  Present/ Past/ Future Perfect Sentences into Passive – Voice

Object of active voice + have-verb + been + past participle (V3) + agent

Present Perfect    –  A kite has been flown by him.

Past Perfect          –  A kite had been flown by him.

Future Perfect     –  A kite will have been flown by him.

CHANGING IMPERATIVE SENTENCES INTO PASSIVE VOICE

The imperative sentences in the passive voice takes this form-

Let + object + be + past participle (V3) [ Assertive sentence]

Active:  Do the work now

Passive: Let the work be done.


Let not  + object + be + past participle  (V3) [Negative sentence]

Active: Do not leave the door ajar.

 Passive: Let not the door be left ajar.

                      ACTIVE VOICE                    PASSIVE VOICE
           Take this medicine.        Let this medicine be taken.
           Do not make a noise.        Let no noise be made.
           Shut the door.        Let the door be shut.
           Give her the file.        Let the file be given to her.

CHANGING INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES INTO PASSIVE VOICE

There are two types of interrogative sentences-

  1. Sentences beginning with wh- words

Active : Who killed the tiger?

Passive: By whom was the tiger was killed?

[Who in active voice becomes ‘by whom in the passive voice. If there is ‘Do/ Does/ Didin the active voice, you will have to be-verbs in the Passive voice.]

                    ACTIVE VOICE                          PASSIVE VOICE
Who wrote Macbeth? By whom  Macbeth was written?
Who belled the cat?By whom was the cat belled?
What will you do?What will be done by you?
Where did you see this man?Where was this man seen by you?
What do you want?What is wanted by you?
Whom did you laugh at?Who was laughed at by you?
When will he buy a car?When will a car be bought by him?
When will they announce the results?When will the results be announced?
Why did he punish you?Why were you punished by him?
Which shirt do you like?Which shirt is liked by you?
 What can you do with a fruit?What can be done with a fruit by you?
Why will they buy the land?Why will the land be bought by them?
  • Sentences beginning with verbs.  [ Sentences beginning with verbs are of two types]
  •  Those beginning with Do/ does/ did
  • Those beginning with other auxiliaries (is, am, was, can, would …) 

                     Active:  Did you do the work?

                     Passive: Was the work done by you?

                     Active : Can you write poetry?

                     Passive : Can poetry be written by you?

                       ACTIVE VOICE        PASSIVE VOICE
 Have you finished the work?Has the work been finished by you?
Do you visit your grandparents?Are your grandparents visited by you?
Did you teacher praise you?Were you praised by your teacher?
Are you writing English?Is English being written by you?
Does she like ice-creams?Are ice-creams liked by her?
Can you help the needy?Can the needy be helped by you?
Did she see the film?Was the film seen by her?

PASSIVE AGENT – ‘BY-CLAUSE

  • Sentences in Passive voice generally end with ‘by- clause’. But sometimes the ‘by-clause is omitted when the stress is on the action rather than the doer of the action or the agent.

    Passive:           The gang was nabbed.

    Passive:       The movie was made in the 80’s.

    Passive:   The shop was closed.

  • If the agent is implied not stated in Passive voice we use ‘people, one, someone, authority, I, she, they…’ as subject of in active voice.
               ACTIVE VOICE              PASSIVE VOICE
 Smoking is prohibited.The authority prohibits smoking.
Tresspassers will be prosecuted.Someone will prosecute tresspassers.
The giant was slain.Someone slew the giant.
English is spoken all over the world.People speak English all over the world.
Punctuality must be maintained.One must maintain punctuality.

.

  • In some passive sentences the agent is preceded by some other preposition instead of ‘by’.
             ACTIVE VOICE                PASSIVE VOICE
She knows him. He is known to her.
Astronomy interests him.He is interested in astronomy.
Their politeness surprised me.   I was surprised at their politeness.
Her behaviour pleased everyone.Everyone was pleased with her behaviour.

.

INFINITIVES

  • Infinitives after ‘be’ or ‘have’ verbs can be changed into Passive Voice.
                       ACTIVE VOICE                 PASSIVE VOICE
There is no time to lose.There is no time to be lost.
There is a lot to do.There is a lot to be done.
They are to do this work. This work is to be done by them.
There are two blogs to post.There are two blogs to be posted.

.

  • If the verb takes an object and infinitive after it the infinitives remain the same in the passive voice.
                        ACTIVE VOICE                          PASSIVE VOICE
We know him to be an actor.He is known to be an actor by us
Sam told her to write an essay.She was told to write an essay by Sam.

.

CHANGING NEGATIVE SENTENCES INTO PASSIVE VOICE

If the negative sentences contain do/does/did auxiliary that do-verb will be omitted in the passive and be-verb will be used. ‘Not’ will be placed between the be-verb and the main verb.

                  ACTIVE VOICE                    PASSIVE VOICE
    They can never win the match. The match can never be won by them.
    Doesn’t she speak Spanish? Is Spanish not spoken by her?
    He should not refuse the offer.The offer should not be refused by him.
     She does not love her friend.Her friend is not loved by her.

QUASI – PASSIVE VERBS

These verbs are active in form but passive in sense, and can be used transitively or intransitively with different subjects.

           ACTIVE VOICE                  PASSIVE VOICE
Honey tastes sweet.Honey is sweet when tasted.
The gate opened.The gate was opened.
The book is selling like hot cakes.The book is being sold like hot cakes.
The cookies have sold over a hundred pieces.The cookies have been sold over a hundred pieces.

.

CHANGING COMPLEX SENTENCES INTO PASSIVE VOICE

                        ACTIVE VOICE                           PASSIVE VOICE
We must endure what we cannot cure.What cannot be cured must be endured.
Everyone thought that it was an earthquake.It was thought by everyone that it was an earthquake.
Active : She is writing a story. Passive: A story is being written by her. Photo by Liam Anderson on Pexels.com

FUTURE TENSE

                                             

SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

Learning about the Future Tense
Let’s talk about the Future. Photo by Ali Pazani

The simple Future tense is used to indicate an action that will take place in the future.

The guests will soon be here.

We shall go to Colorado next week.

Who will help me set the dinner?

They will attack at dawn.

Tomorrow will be Thursday.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + will/shall +V1 + Object I shall like ice-cream.
InterrogativeWill/shall + Subject + V1 + Object?Shall  I like ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + will/shall+ not + V1 + Object I shall not like ice-cream.

Situational use

  1. To express an action that will take place in the future – I shall go there tomorrow.
  2. With clauses of condition and time – He will miss the train unless he drives fast.
  3. For announcing a decision– I will buy a new laptop.
  4. For expressing hopes, expectations, promises – I think she will be very successful one day.
  5. For giving instructions through questions – Will you be quiet?
  6. With actions associated with adverbial phrases of a future time – My father will be sixty in March.

[ We use ‘shall’ with ‘I’ and ‘we’ and ‘ will’ with ‘ I, you, we, he, she, it, they’]

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

 Future Continuous tense is used to indicate some action that will be going on at some point of time in the future.

I shall be reading a book in the evening.

I wonder what she will be doing tomorrow.

Her children will be waiting to greet her at the airport.

We shall be celebrating her birthday when she returns home.

We shall be travelling all night.

When will you be visiting again?

By this time tomorrow, I shall be lying on the beach in Hawai.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + will/shall + be + V4(-ing form of verb) + Object I will be eating ice-cream.
InterrogativeWill/shall + Subject+ be + V4 + Object?Will I be eating ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + will/shall + not+ be + V4 + Object I will not be eating ice-cream.

Situational use

  1. For expressing events in progress in the future – I shall be seeing you tomorrow at this time.
  2. For predicting the present – Don’t disturb-he will be sleeping now.
  3. For predicting a natural course of events – The train will be arriving soon.
  4. For polite inquiries Will you be staying here for a few days?
  5. For expressing pre-decided future plans – I am going to Rome on Sunday.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

Future Perfect tense is used to indicate the completion of action by a certain time in the future.

By this time next year he will have taken his university degree.

I shall have finished this novel by tomorrow.

In August he will have stayed here for two years.

He will have submitted his project by next month.

The builders will have completed their work by Tuesday.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + will/shall + have + V3(past participle) + Object I shall have eaten ice-cream.
InterrogativeWill/shall + Subject+ have + V3 + Object? Will I have eaten ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + will +not + have + V3 + Object I will not have eaten ice-cream.

Situational use

  1. To indicate actions that will be completed before a certain time in the future – I shall have finished my homework by 8 o’clock.
  2. For predicting the present – He will have left by now.
  3. For expressing past in the future – Tomorrow he will have been 80.

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 

Future Perfect Continuous Tense indicates an action represented as being in progress over a period of time that will end in the future.

He will have been making preparations for his wedding for two months by July.

You will have been learning Sanskrit for two years by next month.

They will have been living in Iran for three years by the end of the year.

I shall have been teaching you for half an hour by the time this lesson ends.

They will have been playing for two hours by the time you reach there.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + will/shall + have + been + V4(-ing form of verb) + ObjI will have been working for an hour by then.
InterrogativeWill/shall + Subject+ have + been + V4 + Object?Will I have been working for an hour by then?
NegativeSubject + will/shall+ not +been+ V4 + ObjectI will not have been running for an hour by then.

Situational use

  1. To indicate actions that will continue and will be finished sometime in future– He will have been teaching here for ten years by April.

Other ways to Express Future Tense

Future tense can be expressed in several other ways:

  1. Simple Present Tense – He retires next month.
  2. Present Continuous Tense – I am inviting them next week.
  3. Be + about to – The plane is about to land.
  4. Be + going to –  He is going to be a doctor.
  5. Be + (infinitive) verb – The President is to visit China next week.

FUTURE TENSE OF INTENTION – ‘Going to

‘Going to’ is used to indicate:

  • Intention

We are going to spend our holidays in Kashmir this summer.

I’m going to have my own way.

When are you going to finish your homework?

They are going to sow pulses this year.

We are going to have a new car soon.

  • To state something that is probable or likely to happen.

Look out! The ice beneath you is going to crack.

There is going to be a recession this year.

How long is this pandemic going to continue?

It is going to rain tonight.

He is running fast, he is going to win.

  • For stating future actions without reference to external circumstances.

I am going to tell you a story.

She is going to have a baby. 

He is going to be a chef.

  • For stating past events which was past at that moment.

When he found her, she was going to drown.

The last time we met you were going to open a start up.

[ Always use the root form of the verb with- going to:  Going to + V1:     Going to + eat]

Present, Past and Future went to a bar. It was Tense.
Photo by Tomas Ryant

Que Sera Sera/ Whatever will be, will be/ The future is not ours to see/ Que Sera Sera/ Whatever will be, will be.

Doris Day

PAST TENSE

Photo by Aphiwat chuangchoem on Pexels.com

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

Lord Jesus preached the message of peace.

The police caught the thief red-handed.

Rabindranath wrote Gitanjali.

I spoke to him yesterday.

Did you visit your grandma?

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + V2 + Object I liked ice-cream.
InterrogativeDid + Subject + V1 + Object?Did I like ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + did not + V1 + Object I did not like ice-cream.

Situational Use:

  1. To express a habitual actions of the past (always, never, often, seldom, generally, usually are used in these sentences)   – He generally came here everyday.
  2. To express an event/ actions completed in the past- I bought some apples yesterday.
  3. To express an action going on the time stated– While Krishna played the flute, Radha danced.
  4. Narrating events in the past – Once there lived a beautiful princess.
  5. For short but quickly finished events – I spent my childhood in India.
  6. For State verbs in the Past – Napoleon became the King.
  7. For second conditionals – If he worked hard, he could pass.
  8. For wishes – I wish I knew.
  9. For recommendations – It is time we went home.

FUNCTIONAL USE

  1. Story Telling – One fine day the king decided to go for a hunt.
  2. Narrating past events – When I was two, I was kidnapped.

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE 

I was painting a basket.

She was looking ill.

They were watching T.V. all the time.

They were talking loudly.

The students were not listening to the teacher.

You were watching TV at that time.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + was/ were + V4(-ing form of verb) + Object I was eating ice-cream.
InterrogativeWas/ were + Subject + V4 + Object?Was I eating ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + was/ were + not + V4 + Object I was not eating ice-cream.

Situational Use:

  1. To express an action going in the past. – He was playing piano.
  2. To express repeated or habitual action in the past  – He was always bullying others.
  3. To indicate two simultaneous actions. –  He was cooking while she was reading.
  4. To indicate acts of incompletion – I was painting my house this morning.
  5. To indicate background in the past – I was working as an intern when I met him.
  6. To indicate distancing /less definite things–I was wondering when the economy will revive.
  7. To indicate gradual development of events – He was getting bored.

( when a verb ends with ‘e’ we remove ‘e’ and add ‘ing’. – come – coming:

when a verb ends with ‘ie’ we remove ‘ie’ and add ‘y’. – tie – tying:

when a verb ends with a consonant except ‘r’, w, y’  with a vowel before it we add the consonant twice. – cut – cutting)

PAST PERFECT TENSE

The train had left before we had reached the station.

As soon as he had finished his speech, the people cheered.

The car had crashed by the time the driver realised that it was skidding.

He had broken his pencil before the exam ended.

I had lived there for ten years before moving to this town.

I had locked the door before I left the room.

I had trusted him before he cheated me.

I had reached home before the rain started.

Where had he been at that time?

He had opened the window before going to sleep.

I wish I had accepted the offer.

I told her that I had finished.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject + had + V3(past participle) + Object I had eaten ice-cream.
InterrogativeHad + Subject + V3 + Object? Had I eaten ice-cream?
NegativeSubject + had + V3 + Object I had not eaten ice-cream.

Situational Use:

  1. To express an action that has been completed before another action began. – The thief had fled before the police arrived.
  2. To express an unfulfilled wish in the past. – I wish you had told me the truth.
  3. To express things that happened before thinking or saying – He thought that I had left.
  4. In sentences with ‘after’, ‘when’, ‘as soon as’, ‘ no sooner than’ – No sooner had the teacher left than the boys began shouting.

PAST  PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 

I had been writing for two hours by then.

She had been visiting her for five months when we met.

She had been waiting for him for an hour when he came in.

They had been living here for six years by then.

She had been working on that novel for about eight years.

SENTENCE TYPE                STRUCTURE                 EXAMPLE
PositiveSubject +had+ been + V4(-ing form of verb) + ObjI had been running for an hour by then.
InterrogativeHad + Subject+ been + V4 + Object?Had I been running for an hour by then?
NegativeSubject + had+ not +been+ V4 + ObjectI had not been running for an hour by then.

Situational use

  1. To express the duration of action upto a certain time in the past – Everything had been going according to our plan.
  2. For focussing on the ongoing action – I had been reading in the garden.
  3. For expressing continuations from the past – At that time we had been living there for about a year.
  4. For expressing actions which are incomplete – I had been watching a lot of movies when I got that idea.

The Past time is expressed in six different ways according to its need.

  1. Simple Past  – I wrote an essay.
  2. Past Continuous – I was writing an essay.
  3. Past Perfect  – I had written an essay.
  4. Past Perfect Continuous – I had been writing an essay.
  5. Present Perfect – He has written a novel.
  6. Present Perfect Continuous – You have been crying.

Phrases and Clauses

Photo by Timothy Paule II on Pexels.com

PHRASES

A phrase is a group of word, within a sentence or a clause, having a structure to form a unit smaller than a clause and a sentence  but greater than a word. A phrase does not contain a subject and a finite verb like a clause or a sentence. (It may however contain an infinite verb like a participle, infinitive or gerund).

A phrase does not make complete sense in itself, but can have meaning only through its relation to some part of the sentence in which it stands.

E.g.  The writer was a man of great talent.

         He shot an arrow into the air.

        It was a scene of great beauty.

         She wore a gown made of silk.

The underlined words in italics are phrases.

There are five types of phrases named after their main word.

  1. Noun Phrase
  2. Adjective Phrase
  3. Verb Phrase
  4. Adverb Phrase
  5. Prepositional Phrase.

NOUN PHRASE

A Noun Phrase is a group of words that does the work of a noun. (subject or object to a verb).

It was a very bright light.

My favourite food is ice-cream.

I enjoy playing tennis.

Thinking good thoughts makes a good man.

To know ones self is a difficult task.

She loves to paint her thoughts.

The italicised words are used as nouns and are called Noun Phrases

ADJECTIVE PHRASE

When a group of words does the work of an Adjective, it is called an adjective phrase. An adjective phrase does not contain a subject and a finite verb. It does not make complete sense in itself, but can have meaning only through its relation to the part of sentence in which it belongs.

The following sentences show the difference between an adjective and an adjective phrase.

  1 a) The Prussian army was defeated.

      b) The army of Prussia was defeated. 

2. a) The doctor was a generous man.

    b) The doctor was a man of a generous nature.

3.  a) A valuable painting was stolen yesterday.

     b) A painting of great value was stolen yesterday.

The words in the first sentences (a) are examples of adjectives, while the group of words in the second sentences (b) are examples of adjective phrases.

The following are examples of Adjectives and their corresponding phrases.

A silver spoon.
A popular leader.
A populous country.
A religious woman.
A woollen coat.
A deserted town.
A spoon made of silver.
A leader liked by the people.
A country having a large population.
A woman of religious nature.
A coat made of wool.
A town without any inhabitants.

ADVERB PHRASE

A group of words that does the work of an adverb but does not make complete sense by themselves is said to be an Adverb phrase.

Look at the following sentences:

  1. a) God is everywhere. (Where?)

b) God is in everyplace. (Where?)

  1. a) She replied rudely. (How?)

b) She replied in a rude manner. (How?)

  1. a) He was the Governor then. (When?)

b) He was a Governor in those days. (When?)

In the first sentences (a) everywhere, rudely and then are adverbs. In the second sentences (b) ‘everyplace’, ‘in a rude manner’, ‘in those days’ are adverb phrases.

Examine the following table of Adverbs and their equivalent Adverb Phrases.

                 Adverbs             Adverb Phrases
Bravely
Foolishly
Undoubtedly
Carelessly
In a brave manner, or with bravery
In a foolish manner
Without doubt
Without any care
Formerly
Immediately
Soon
Recently
In former times / Once upon a time
At once / without delay
In a short time/ before very long
Not long ago
There
Abroad
Upwards
At that place
In (or to) a foreign country
Towards a higher place or level

VERB PHRASE

A verb phrase is a group of words that does the work of a verb but does not make complete sense by themselves.

The girls were singing a song.

Each student will be given a sample paper.

The children have been playing for two hours .

The teachers are teaching in the class.

My father is going to the market.

The words in italics are examples of verb phrase.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE

A group of words which acts like a preposition but does not make complete sense by itself is called a prepositional phrase.

The circus came to our city.

There is a bus stop near our school.

On the way home, he met his friend.

Several ducks were swimming in the lake.

Darkness comes after sunset.

The mole lives under the ground.

He left for office at 8 o’clock.

POSITION OF PHRASES

A phrase is usually placed at the end of a sentence.

E.g.

There were many people in the stadium.

There is a library near my home.

However, we may also place the phrase at the beginning.

In the stadium, there were many people.

Near my home, there is a library.

CLAUSES

A clause is a group of words that forms a part of a sentence that has a subject and a finite verb of its own.

TYPES

Generally clauses are of three types.

  1. MAIN CLAUSE
  2. COORDINATE CLAUSE
  3. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE: It is also called the principal clause/ independent clause as the clause makes complete sense.

I knew that he would come.

COORDINATE CLAUSE :Two or more main clauses linked by a co-ordinating linker or conjunction is called a coordinate clause.

He would come and I knew it.

She came first as I had predicted last week.

He wished would pass and he did pass with flying colours. 

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE: A subordinate or dependent clause, does not make complete sense by itself and is dependent on the main clause for its complete sense.

I knew that he would come.

Here is another example-

 The teacher told him that he was late.

The sentence can be broken into two parts .

  1. The teacher told him.
  2. That he was late.

Each part of the sentence contains a subject and a predicate of its own. As there are two parts of the sentence, there are two clauses.

MAIN CLAUSE: The teacher told him. –It is also called the principal clause/ independent clause as the clause makes complete sense.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE: That he was late. This clause is called subordinate or dependent clause, it does not make complete sense by itself and is dependent on the main clause for its complete sense.

Types of subordinate clause.

There are three types of subordinate clauses.

  1. Noun clause
  2. Adjective or Relative clause
  3. Adverb clause

NOUN CLAUSE

A subordinate clause that acts as a noun in a sentence is called a Noun clause.

E.g.     a)  I told him that I would get his book.

           b)  Tell her what she wants to know.

           c)  I want to know if he is telling the truth.

Note: Noun clauses are generally introduced by
That
If/whether
Wh- question words like who, why , what etc.  

ADJECTIVE / RELATIVE CLAUSE

A subordinate Adjective Clause is which qualifies a noun or a pronoun in the main clause and does the work of an adjective. It is also known as Relative Clause.

Examples:

  1. The book that you are holding is a masterpiece.
  2. The car which is steel grey in colour is mine.
  3. I respect all those people who are knowledgeable.

ADVERB CLAUSE

A subordinate Adverb Clause is that which performs the function of an adverb in a sentence.

Examples:

  1. Wait till I return.
  2. It is useless to argue as you will not understand.
  3. The suggestions were so good that I agreed immediately.

The underlined clauses, above are Adverb Clauses. Adverb clauses are introduced by the following subordinate conjunctions.

  • Adverb clause of ‘Place’ : (conjunctions used – where , wherever)
    • Wherever you go, I shall find you.
    • The child wants to go where his mother is.
  • Adverb clause of time. (Conjunctions – when while , before after, since,  whenever, till, until, as, as soon as, so long as)
    • The mother was cooking, while the children were dancing.
    • As soon as the robbers saw the police, they ran away.
  • Adverb clause of contrast. ( conjunctions –although, even if , even though)
    • He will not clear the exam , even if he works very hard now.
    • Although he is the younger one he looks older.
  •  Adverb clause of Manner. ( conjunctions- as, as if, as though, as … so.
    • She behaves as though she were a Queen.
    • Don’t treat me as if I am your servant.
  • Adverb clause of Purpose. ( conjunctions-so that, in order that, lest)
    •   Work hard lest you should fail.
    • The labourers worked hard so that they could earn their living.
  •    Adverb clause of Comparison. (conjunctions- as, than)
    • My mother is more intelligent than my father.
    • He is not as tall as his friend.
  • Adverb clause of ‘Condition’. (conjunctions- if, unless, provided that, in case)
    • If she extends an invitation ,I will surely go.
    • I will sign the invitation provided you give me the cheque.
  • Adverb clause of ‘Extent’. (conjunctions- so far as, as far as)
    • As far as my knowledge of him goes, he is a miser.
    • So far as I am concerned, I am willing to contribute.
  • Adverb clause of Result/ Effect / Consequence. (conjunctions – so, so…that)
    • The beggar is so poor that he hardly gets anything to eat.
    • He got up late, so he missed his school bus.
Adverb clause of condition.😀
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REPORTED SPEECH

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

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There are two ways of reporting the words spoken by an individual:

Directly – Ron said, “I will win the match.”

Indirectly– Ron said that he would win the match.

Direct speech – The actual words of the speaker is used within double inverted commas. (“   “)

Indirect Speech – When the words of a speaker are reported in our own words.

Reporting verb – In the direct speech, those words which appear outside the double inverted commas are called reporting verb. The reporting verb introduces the words of the speaker. This verb indicates who speaks to whom, how and when.

Reported speech : Those words which are used within inverted commas in the direct speech is called reported speech.

Direct speech example:

The teacher said, “The earth revolves around the sun.”

In this sentence – The teacher said    is the reporting verb.

“ The earth revolves around the sun.”   is the reported speech.

Indirect speech

The teacher said that the earth revolves around the sun.

[ R.V. = Reporting verb,       R.S.  = Reported speech  ]

[D.S. = Direct speech,           I.S. = Indirect speech]     

For changing Direct speech into Indirect speech, the following rules need to be observed.

Rule -1

 If the R.V. is in the present or the future tense, then the tense of the verb does not change. [ no need to change the tense of the R.S. ]

E.g. D.S-  He says, “He is in deep trouble.”

         I.S.- He says that he is in great trouble.

If the R.S. expresses a universal truth or some habitual facts, then the tense of the reported speech remains as it is.

E.g. D.S.- “ The teacher said, “God is immortal.”

       I.S. – The teacher said that God is immortal.”

RULE- 2

 In case the reporting verb is in the past tense the tense of the verb will change correspondingly.

i) A simple present becomes a simple past.

e.g. D.S.- She said, “ I am busy.”

       I.S.-  She said that she was busy.

ii) A present continuous becomes Past continuous.

 D.S.- She said, “I am writing a poem.”

 I.S.- She said that she was writing a poem.

iii) A present perfect becomes a past perfect.

D.S.-They said, “We have done our duty.”

I.S. –They said that they had done their duty.

iv) The simple past is often but not always changed to past perfect.

D.S- Veronica said, “ I drank coffee after dinner.”

I.S.- Veronica said that she had drunk coffee after dinner.

RULE- 3

If the R.S. expresses nearness in time or place then, it is changed into a word that expresses distance.

Now       –      Then

This        –     That

These    –     those

Thus     –      so/ that way

Come    –     Go

Here     –     There

Hence    –    Thence

Ago     –      before

Today  –    That day

Tomorrow  – The next day

Yesterday   –   The day before / The previous day

Last night  – The night before / The previous night

Last week/ month/ year    –     The week/ month/ year before or the  previous week/ month/ year etc.

Rule – 4 Rules regarding tenses

Said to  (in R.S.)            –              told

Said (in R.S.)                –               had said

Is saying                       –               was saying

Was saying                  –               had been saying

Can                               –               could

Will                               –                would

Shall                             –                should/would

May                              –                might    

Is                                   –                was

Am                                –                was     

Has                               –                 had

Has  been                     –                had been

Come                           –                 came

Has come                    –                 had come

Has been coming       –                 had been coming           

Is coming                     –                 was coming

Rule – 5

Rules regarding pronouns

a) Pronoun of first person change into the person and gender of the subject of R.V.

i)  D.S.- I said, “ I am happy today.”

     I.S.- I said that I was happy that day.

ii) D.S.-  You said, “I am happy today.”

     I.S.-  You said that you were happy that day.

iii) D.S. –  He said, “ I am happy today.”

     I.S.-  He said that he was happy that day.

iv) D.S. –  Robert said, “My pen is lost.”

      I.S.  – Robert said that his pen was lost.

b) Pronouns of the second person change according to the object of R.V.

D.S. – He said to me, “ You are right.”

I.S. – He said to me that I was right.

c) The pronouns of the third person do not change.

D.S. – He said, “She is an intelligent girl.”

I.S. – He said that she was an intelligent girl.

Rule 6

Rules for reporting statements or assertive sentences

i) Place suitable reporting verb.

ii)  While reporting statements ‘that’  conjunction is introduced.

iii) Change verb in reported speech.

iv) Change pointer word of nearness into that of distance.

D.S. – He said, “The bad weather last night stopped me from coming here.”

I.S. – He said that the bad weather the previous night stopped him from going there.

List of reporting verbs

said,        told,        added,          informed,         remarked/commented,        Answered/ replied    asserted,     assured,    hoped,     explained,     agreed,       admitted,     pointed out,     accepted,      advised,      insisted,       protested,      warned,       threatened,       refused     interrupted,      cursed,         offered,          congratulated        

Rule 7

Rules regarding interrogative sentences:                        

Interrogative sentences are of two types

  1. Formed by question verb. (wh-word :normal answer)
  2. Formed by auxiliary verb or helping verb. (Answers in ‘yes’ or ‘no’)
  3. If the R.S. is an interrogative sentence or a question, then the R.V. is changed to ‘asked’ or ‘enquired’.
  4. The question mark is removed and the R.S. is changed into a statement.
  5.  If the R.S.  begins with a ‘wh – word’,  then the same wh-word is used in the indirect speech.

     D.S- He said to me, “Where do you live?”

     I.S.- He asked me where I lived.

  1. If the question starts with a helping verb, then we use ‘if’ or ‘whether’ in the indirect speech.

 D.S.- Ansh said to Misha, “Is it necessary for me to meet the Principal?”

 I.S- Ansh asked Misha whether it was necessary for him to meet the Principal.

Reporting imperative sentences

If the R.S. is an imperative sentence, the R.V. is changed into a word that expresses command, a wish, a request, or an advice.

E.g. D.S.-The teacher said to Nash, “Stop making a noise.”

        I.S.- The teacher ordered Nash to stop making a noise.

        D.S.-  He said, “ Let us go for a walk.”

        I.S. – He suggested that they should go for a walk.

Rule -8

Rules regarding imperative sentences:

Reporting commands or requests

  1. While changing direct speech into indirect speech the reporting verb is changed into – advised, begged, commanded, entreated, forbade, ordered, requested or threatened.
  2. Conjunction ‘to’ is used in positive sentences.

     Conjunction ‘ not to’ is used in negative sentences.

D.S.- Teacher said to the students, “Do not make a noise.”

I.S. – Teacher told the students not to make a noise.

Or

Teacher forbade the students to make a noise.

Reporting imperative sentences with ‘let’

  1. If ‘let us’ means suggestion

Should’ is used and the reporting verb is changed into ‘suggested’ or  ‘proposed’.

D.S.- Helen said, “Let us go for a movie.”

 I.S. – Helen proposed that they should go for a movie.

ii) If ‘let us’ expresses a call to action

Then it is usually reported by urged/ advised

D.S. – The Principal said to his staff, “Let us attend the lecture.”

I.S. – The Principal urged his staff to attend the lecture.

iii) If ‘let’ is used to mean allow or permit. Then the verb let in the reported speech is retained or changed into may/ might/ may be allowed to/ might be allowed to

D.S.- I said to him, “ Let me go home.”

I.S. – I told him to let me go home.

         I told him that I might be allowed to go home. 

Rules regarding exclamatory sentences:

If the R.S. happens to be an exclamatory sentence, then:

  1. The reporting verb is changed into words like exclaimed, exclaimed with joy/ sorrow, cried out, blessed, prayed, wished, cried.
  2. The interjections like alas, bravo, curse it, hurrah and well are omitted and their sense is expressed by means of phrases.

Ah! or Alas! – Exclaimed with grief or sorrow

Aha! Hurray! – Exclaimed with joy

Bravo! – Applauded

How! Oh! What! – Exclaimed with surprise

Pooh! – exclaimed with contempt

Shit! Sorry! – exclaimed with regret

  1. Conjunction ‘that’ is used.
  2.  The sense of sentence is made assertive.

 D.S. He said,Alas! My cat is no more.

 I.S.-  He exclaimed with sorrow that his cat was no more.

D.S.- He said to us,” Bravo! You have done well.”

I.S.-  He applauded us by saying that we had done well.

D.S. – “What a beautiful scenery it is!” he said.

I.S. – He exclaimed with joy that it was a beautiful scenery.

Subject-Verb Agreement

He agrees with them.
They agree with him.

A Verb must agree with its Subject in Number and Person. A singular subject takes a singular verb; and a plural subject takes a plural verb.

Rules for Agreement of subject and verb:

1) Two or more singular subjects joined by ‘and’ usually take a plural verb.

E.g. – Raman and Harry work hard.

 Air and water are necessary for survival.

  Nancy and I were the hosts of the party.

  The author and the publisher were in a meeting.   

2)   If two nouns suggest only one idea or refer to the same person or thing then it will take a singular verb.

E.g. Slow and steady wins the race.

Beans and rice is her favourite dish.

 The horse and carriage is at the door.

Comfort and luxury has made him lazy.

Bread and butter is a wholesome breakfast.

 Her hard work and dedication has paid off.

The author and publisher, Mr Charles is here amongst us.

 3) Words joined to a singular subject by ‘with’ or ‘ as well as’, ‘together with’, ‘along with’ take a singular verb.

E.g.  Alex as well as  Sharon likes tea.

The house, with its furniture was burnt.  

 Vinn along with his friends is punished.

 I as well as Shirley am going to the park.

Bren as well as his family is shifting to Texas.

The Captain, with all his men, was drowned.

The doctor with his interns has reached the O.T.

The teacher as well as her students is in the class.

The boy with his parents is waiting for the teacher.

Verna with her friends wants to participate in the competition.

The officer as well as his subordinates was present at the meeting.

4) When two or more subjects in the singular are joined by ‘or’, ‘nor’, ‘either or’, ‘ neither nor’– the verb used is singular.

E.g. Jack or Tom is to blame.

Either he or I am to blame.

Either Robert or Arnold was absent.

Neither Robert nor Arnold was present.

5)  When two subjects of a sentence are joined by ‘not only’… ‘ but also…’, ‘ either or’, ‘neither nor’ the verb agrees with the latter subject.

E.g.- Neither Tom nor his friends have come.

Either my friend or I am going to buy this dress.

The farmer or his servants were responsible for the theft.

Not only your certificates but your marks also are important.

Neither Ritu nor her friends are willing to attend the function.

6) When a plural noun (in Prepositional Phrases) comes between a singular subject and its verb, the verb used is singular.

 E.g. The quality of apples was not good.

A combination of colours charms the sky.

  The bag of mangoes is too heavy for the child.

  Much of the hard work of the farmers has been wasted due to drought.

7) ‘ Either’, ‘Neither’, ’Each’, ‘Every’, ‘Everyone’, ‘many a’, ‘one of the’, ‘little’, ‘less’ generally take  a singular verb.

E.g. Either of the boys has done this.

Each of these boys is intelligent.

Neither of them was found guilty.

Each one of her paintings is fantastic.

Much of the homework is already done.

  Every man, woman and child was happy.

  Everyone, whom we invited, has turned up.

  Only one of the five contestants is going to win.

Thanks to metro rail, less of my time is spent on commuting.

8) Some words can refer to amount/quantity as well as number. When, these words refer to amount/ quantity, they take a singular verb. When these words refer to number, they take a plural verb.

None, a lot of, a great deal of, plenty of, most of, etc, are some such words.

  E.g. I] None of the work (amount) was complete.

 None of the strategies (number) have worked.

II] A lot of energy was (amount) wasted on finding the treasure.

 A lot of books have (number)been written.

III] A variety of music is (amount) available here.

  A variety of music albums are (number) available here.

IV] Plenty of help has (amount) been offered to the poor family.

Plenty of trees were (number) planted by students.

9)  A collective noun usually takes a singular verb.

E.g. This pair of scissors is very sharp.

A bunch of keys is kept on the table.

A large crowd makes me feel nervous.

A swarm of bees was buzzing around the tree.

However, collective nouns like – committee, assembly, jury, congress, team- may take a singular or plural verb depending on whether it is taken as singular or plural.

E.g. The committee was united in their opinion

The  committee were divided in their opinion.

My new pair of socks is very tight.

 My new socks are very tight.

The team has decided to follow the strategy.

The team were divided on following the strategy.

10) Some nouns, which are plural in form but singular in meaning, take singular verb.

 E.g. No news is good news.

Measles is a contagious disease.

Mathematics is an interesting subject.

Billiards is fast becoming a popular game.

Physics is considered to be a difficult subject.

 11) Some nouns are singular in form but plural in meaning. We use plural verbs with such nouns.

E.g. – The people are enjoying themselves.

The cattle were driven to the farm.

 The children are playing in the park.

  12) Class nouns like- cutlery, stationery, food, furniture take a singular verb.

E.g.  The food here is quite good.

 The cutlery was well arranged.

 The new furniture is pretty expensive.

  The stationary was available at a cheap price.

13) Weight, measure, time, distance take a singular verb.

  E.g. Five years is a pretty long time.

  A hundred rupees is not a big amount for him.

  Ten kilos of milk was consumed by the players.

  Only one-fourth of the police force was deployed.

14) When a plural noun is the name of one thing it takes a singular verb.

  E.g. ‘ The Arabian Nights’ is a famous book.

 ‘ The United States’ has a big army.

15) When a sentence starts with ‘here‘, ‘there‘ the subject is placed after the verb and will take a singular or plural verb depending on the subject.

E.g. There is a tiger in the forest.

Here are the books that you ordered.

16) Verbs which appear before subjects in interrogative sentences (questions) will be singular or plural according to the subject.

E.g. Where are my keys?

Does she know the answer?

Have they solved the problem?

Is she the girl who won the Quiz?

16. Indefinite pronouns like ‘everyone’, ‘ ‘someone’, ‘nobody’, ‘anyone’ take a singular verb.

E.g. Someone is at the door.

Nobody is perfect.

Has anyone seen my book?

Something is better than nothing.

Everybody was present at the meeting.

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AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

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Sentences can be divided into two primary groups – Affirmative or Positive, and Negative sentences.

AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

An affirmative sentence simply states something.  It is any declaration that is positive. An affirmative sentence expresses the validity of truth of an assertion.

Jane is a girl. – Is an example of an affirmative sentence.

Jane is not a boy. – Is an example of a negative sentence.

An affirmative or positive sentence means something is so, while a negative sentence – which is its polar opposite – means something is not so.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES

 A sentence is usually made negative in English by placing the adverb ‘not’ after the finite verb. Such verbs are:

Be      –  (is/am/ are/ was/were)

Have  –  ( has/ had )

Can    –  (could )

Shall  –  (should)

Will  – ( would)

May  – (might)

Must

Ought

How to make sentences negative:

  1. The verb ‘be’:

We put not after the various forms of the verb ‘be’.

 Affirmative – He is working.

Negative – He is not working.

In case of ‘will be’ and ‘shall be’, we put ‘not’ after ‘will’ and ‘shall.’

Will be – will not be, shall be – shall not be.

  • The verb ‘Have’ (has, had)

I have a pen.                          I have no pen.

                                                 I do not have a pen.

                                                 I don’t have a pen.

She has a pen.                       She has no pen.

                                                 She does not have a pen.

                                                 She doesn’t have a pen.

She had a pen.                       She had no pen

                                               She did not have a pen.

                                                She didn’t have a pen.            

  • Verb made of two or more words:

We put not after the first word.

She is painting.                             She is not painting.

He should take a break.             He should not take a break.

  • Simple Present Tense

We use either do not or does not with the root form of the verb.

I eat fruit daily.               I do not eat fruit daily.

She eats fruit daily.       She does not eat fruit daily.

[ he/ she / it – does]     [ I/ you /we / they  – do]

  • Simple past tense

We use did not with the root form of the verb:

She played baseball.          She did not play baseball.

They wrote essays.              They did not write essays.    

  • Imperative sentences (commands)

We put do not (don’t) in the beginning of the sentence:

Close the door.                              Do not(don’t) close the door.

Give her the book.                  Do not (don’t) give her the book.  

In spoken English the adverb ‘not’ is usually shortened to (n’t):

 Unshortened form                                   Shortened form

I am not                                                       I’m not

Is not                                                            Isn’t

Are not                                                         aren’t

Was not                                                       wasn’t

Have not                                                      haven’t

Has not                                                         hasn’t

Had not                                                        hadn’t

Do not                                                           don’t

Does not                                                       doesn’t

Did not                                                          didn’t         

Cannot                                                           can’t

Could not                                                       couldn’t                   

 Will not                                                         won’t

 Would not                                                    wouldn’t

Shall not                                                          shan’t

Should not                                                      shouldn’t

Must not                                                         mustn’t

Ought not                                                        oughtn’t

Need not                                                          needn’t

Dare not                                                           daren’t

May not                                                            mayn’t

Might not                                                         mightn’t  

Examples:

AFFIRMATIVE                             NEGATIVE

I am a boy.                             I am (I’m) not a boy.

He is a doctor.                       He is not (isn’t) a doctor.

They are my friends.            They are not (aren’t) my friends.

She was late yesterday.      She was not wasn’t late yesterday.

He can speak French.          He cannot (can’t) speak French.

She will go now.             She will not (won’t) go now.

They may help us.                They may not (mayn’t) help us.

It might cure her.                  It might not (mightn’t) cure her.  

They ought to help her.     They ought not (oughtn’t) help her.

Forming negatives using do (does) not and did not.

AFFIRMATIVE                                  NEGATIVE

I like mangoes.                      I do not (don’t) like mangoes.

They live in London.            They do not (don’t) live in London.

He speaks Spanish.               He does not speak Spanish.

They tried hard.                    They did not try hard.

She bought a new pen.        She did not buy a new pen.

Do it now.                              Do not (don’t) do it now.

Call everybody.                     Do not (don’t) call everybody.

NEGATIVE QUESTIONS.

The negative question or interrogative negative is formed by first making the interrogative sentence and then placing the adverb ‘not’ after the subject. If the shortened form of (n’t) is used then it is placed with the finite verb before the subject.

The interrogative form of ‘I am not’ is ain’t (colloquial) or ‘I am not’ (formal).

Examples:

She went to college yesterday.

Did he not go to the college yesterday?

Didn’t she go to the college yesterday?

He has been to Paris.

Has she not been to Paris?

Hasn’t she been to Paris?

FOUR WAYS OF FORMING QUESTIONS

Is Sheena reading?

Isn’t Sheena reading?

Sheena is reading, isn’t she?

Sheena is not reading, is she?

These questions may be answered with a ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

The last two Questions have been framed using Question tags.

QUESTION TAGS

Question tags are short questions added to the end of a sentence. A positive statement has a negative question tag and a negative statement has a positive question tag.

 She is beautiful, isn’t she?       

 He is not playing, is he?       

  • Positive statement           —–          negative question tag.
  • Negative  statement        ——         positive question tag.

Eg. All these students will do well, won’t they?

He did not believe me, did he?

Types of sentences based on structure.

It is a beautiful painting. (simple sentence)
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Sentence is the largest structural unit of a language. Sentences can be divided into three basic categories depending on its grammatical structure, i.e. the position and requirement of subject, verb etc.

  1. Simple Sentence
  2. Complex Sentence and
  3. Compound Sentence

Simple Sentence

 A simple sentence has one main clause. It has only one subject and one finite verb.

He is an artist.

In this sentence ‘he’ is the only subject, and ‘is’ the only finite verb.

( Finite verb – a verb that changes with person, number and tense. )

I like cars.                                              I like to drive cars.

She likes cars.                                      She likes to drive cars.

(I Like – He likes – finite verb)           (to drive – non finite verb)

Complex sentence

A sentence containing one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses is called a complex sentence.

They rested when evening came.

As the boxers advanced into the ring, the people said that they would not allow them to fight.

The people said. (main clause)

As the boxers advanced into the ring. (subordinate clause)

That they would not allow them to fight. (subordinate clause)

We may add more subordinate clauses (dependent clause) to make it more complex.

Adding  1 subordinate clause to the main clause.

Ronny went to school, though he did not want to.

Adding  2 subordinate clauses to the main clause.

Though Ronny went to school, he did not want to go, as he had not done his homework.

Adding  3 subordinate clauses to the main clause.

Though Ronny went to school, he did not want to go, as he had not done his homework and he will get punished.

Compound Sentence

A compound sentence contains two main clauses or independent clauses joined by a co-ordinating linker or conjunction.

He tried hard but he did not succeed.

This sentence consists of two independent clauses joined by a conjunction.

He tried hard. ( but)

He did not succeed.

Night came on and rain fell heavily and we all got wet.

This sentence consists of three independent clauses joined by conjunctions.

Night came on. (and)

Rain fell heavily. (and)

We all got wet.

Complex Compound

A complex- compound sentence contains one main clause and two or more subordinate clause that are connected with a co-ordinating linker.

The man said    that three workers had arrived   and    that four others were absent.

The man said                                   -(main clause)

 that three workers had arrived     – (subordinate clause)

 and                                                     -(co-ordinating linker)

 that four others were absent.        – (subordinate clause.)

One main clause and two subordinating clauses joined by a linker.

Compound complex

A compound complex sentence contains two main clauses, in which one main clause has a sub-clause.

The Maths syllabus is difficult  and  since it was implemented years agomany students have failed.

The Maths syllabus is difficult    -(main clause)

 And                                                   – (co-ordinating linker)

 since it was implemented years ago, – (subordinate clause)

many students have failed.                 – (main clause)

Examples of the five types of sentences based on structure.

Simple –  He loves books.

Compound He loves books and he often buys books.

ComplexHe loves books which are interesting.

Complex compound He loves books which are interesting and (which) have a lot of information.

Compound complex He loves books but as they are expensive he buys them rarely.

Articles

A card and an envelope.
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Three words ‘a’ ‘an’ and ‘the’ are called articles.

Articles are of two types:

  1. Indefinite Articles
  2. Definite articles
  1. Indefinite Articles – ‘A’ and ‘An’ are weakened form of one and are called Indefinite Articles as they do not point out to any particular person or thing.
  2. Definite article – ‘The’ is called the definite article because it points out some definite or particular person or thing.

Use of Indefinite articles ‘A’ and ‘An’:

Use of indefinite article ‘A’;

  • Before a word beginning with a consonant sound:

  A boy, a pen

  • Before a word beginning with the sound ‘yu’

A university, a union, a unicorn, a usage, a European, a unicorn

  •  Before a word beginning with the sound ‘wu’

A one-pound note, a one-eyed monster

  •  Sounded ‘h’ words

A horse, a hero, a holiday

Uses of ‘An’:

  • Before words beginning with a vowel sound

     An orange, an umbrella, an eagle, an ass

  • Before words beginning with a silent ‘h

An honest man, an hour, an heir

  •  Before words beginning with consonant letters but having vowel sound

An M.P, an M.A, an M.L.A, an S.P, an S.D.O, an L.L.B, an F.R.C.S, an S.O.S, an N.G.O, an L.C.D.

  The letters (F.L.M.N.S) are pronounced with a vowel sound in some words.

  • Before a singular countable noun.

 I saw a girl skipping in the park.

  • Before a single countable noun which stands for a group.

A woman has to work to live. A dog needs care.

  • In certain expressions of speed ratio and price.

A dozen oranges. A lot of people. A great deal of hardwork ensures success.

  • In expressions of speed ratio price.

Rupees 50 a kilo. Twice a day. Twenty kilometres a litre.

Definite Article ‘The’

We  use ‘the’  when we mean a particular person or thing.

Use of definite article ‘The

a) When we speak of a person or thing for the second time.

     Eg. Take a chair.

    Take the chair near the window

b) When it is very clear what we are speaking about, we use the.

     Eg. The moon is shining in the sky.

      The telephone is ringing.

      The door of the study room is locked.

c) We use the with  names of:

  •  rivers, seas, oceans, canals, mountain ranges, group of islands.

The Ganga, the Indian ocean, the Himalayas, the Maldivies.

  • Deserts, forests,

       The Thar, the Kalahari, the Sundarbans, the Sherwood Forest

  •  Well known buildings, holy books, news papers.

The Taj Mahal, the Gita, the Telegraph, The Times

  •  Trains , ships, aeroplanes.

The Orient Express, the Titanic, the British Airways

  • Musical instruments

       The violin, the guitar, the piano

  •   Some countries which suggests accumulation of units.

    The U.S.A , the U.K,  the U.A.E. the Punjab, the Sudan

  •   With superlatives.

     The most beautiful, the biggest

  •   With ordinals.

    The first, the last

  • With directions

The East, the North, the South, the West

  •   Adjectives to denote the whole class.

    The rich, the poor.

  •   Before names of races, groups, and communities.

     The Hindus, the Chinese, the English

  •   Before a surname to refer to a family in plural.

    The Smiths, the Gandhis

  •  Before a known person or thing.

The flower looks beautiful. Pass the sugar please.

  •   Before the names consisting of noun + of + noun.

    The Bay of Bengal, the Bay of Naples.

  •   Before a noun made definite with a phrase/clause.

      The ship of the desert, The girl in the room.

  •   Before parallel comparatives.

      The more, the merrier. The higher you go the cooler it gets.

  • To make a proper noun common.

           John is the Einstein of his class.

           Mumbai is the New York of the East.

Before a noun to make emphasis.

This is the time to act.            He is the authority to do so.

Omission of the article

We don’t use the with

  • Proper nouns,                                    
  • Nouns that name materials,
  • Nouns that name abstract qualities.

       [  unless they have been made particular. ]

We need water for drinking.

The water we drink must be pure.

Kashmir is famous for its beauty.

The beauty of Kashmir is very famous.

The beauty of Kashmir is very famous.
Photo by Tayyab Khan

INTERJECTION

Hurrah! We have won the match.

                                                                          

An interjection is a word of exclamation, expressing a sudden feeling or emotion. They are rather marginal to language. i.e. They are not grammatically connected with any other word in a sentence.

Ah! The earthquake has destroyed many towns.

Hello! How are you?

Hurrah! We have won the match.

Alas! My dog is dead.

Oh! You scared me.

Hush! Don’t make a noise.

Ouch! I have hurt my leg.

Damn! I have lost this game.

Fie!  I am sick of you and your lies.

Wow! What a beautiful scenery it is!

Phew! That was a narrow escape.

Goodbye! See you later.

  • An interjection expresses a sudden strong feeling.

CLASSIFICATION:

Interjections can be classified into three types.

Cognitive interjections   – these words give us information about the feelings of the speaker.

Wow! She is looking so pretty.

Emotive interjections – These words express emotions, like disgust, sorrow and fear.

Eww, What a stench!

Volitative interjections– These words act as imperative expressions commanding, requesting or demanding something from the addressee.

Hush! The baby is sleeping.

 Feelings                                          Interjections   

Surprise           –     [  Oh!   Oops!  Wow!   Gee!  What!  Boo!  Woah!   OMG!  Gosh!]

Disgust             –     [ Ugh!    Phew!     Tut-tut!      Damn!   Eww!    Yuck!  ]

Appreciation   –     [Bravo!   Encore!    Yeah!    Boo-yah!    Woo-hoo!    ]

Hatred /anger –     [Fie!      Pooh !       Hah!      Aargh!        Eek!     Rats! ]

Delight              –    [Hurray!    Cheers!     Yippee!   Bingo!    Yay!     ]

Attention         –     [Psst!     Yoo-hoo!   Hey!    Ahem!     Erm!

Greetings         –   [Goodbye!     Hello!     Hi!    Ho!    Hey!  ]

Sorrow              –  [Alas!     Ah!      Puff!     Oh!     Tsk-tsk!  ]

Onomatopoeia –    [Splash!  Bang!  Boom!  Crack!]

Pain                   –     [Ow!    Ouch!    Aah! ]

Making silent  –     [ Hush!    Shhh!  ]  

Affection          –     [ Mwah!]

Certain groups of words are also used as interjections.

Ah me!      Be quite!       Bless you!      Bloody hell!      Excuse me!      For shame!       Good gracious!    Good grief!      My goodness!       Oh God!   Oh no!     Oh dear!     Uh- oh!     Uh-huh!     Thank God!    What’s up?  Well done!          

Usage:

Interjections primarily play an emotive function and are hence not usually used for academic or factual writing. These words may appear at the beginning, middle or at the end of the sentence.

Beginning of the sentence:

Wow! What a pleasant surprise.

Wow, what a pleasant surprise!

Middle of the sentence:

Look at her, my goodness, she is virtually flying!

This was certainly, my gosh, your best performance.

End of the sentence:

So it is raining again, huh?             

Hope to see you soon, goodbye!                                       

Crack! Went the thunder.