Sentences can be divided into two primary groups – Affirmative or Positive, and Negative sentences.
An affirmative sentence simply states something. It is any declaration that is positive. An affirmative sentence expresses the validity of truth of an assertion.
Jane is a girl. – Is an example of an affirmative sentence.
Jane is not a boy. – Is an example of a negative sentence.
An affirmative or positive sentence means something is so, while a negative sentence – which is its polar opposite – means something is not so.
A sentence is usually made negative in English by placing the adverb ‘not’ after the finite verb. Such verbs are:
Be – (is/am/ are/ was/were)
Have – ( has/ had )
Can – (could )
Shall – (should)
Will – ( would)
May – (might)
How to make sentences negative:
The verb ‘be’:
We put not after the various forms of the verb ‘be’.
Affirmative – He is working.
Negative – He is not working.
In case of ‘will be’ and ‘shall be’, we put ‘not’ after ‘will’ and ‘shall.’
Will be – will not be, shall be – shall not be.
The verb ‘Have’ (has, had)
I have a pen. I have no pen.
I do not have a pen.
I don’t have a pen.
She has a pen. She has no pen.
She does not have a pen.
She doesn’t have a pen.
She had a pen. She had no pen
She did not have a pen.
She didn’t have a pen.
Verb made of two or more words:
We put not after the first word.
She is painting. She is not painting.
He should take a break. He should not take a break.
Simple Present Tense
We use either do not or does not with the root form of the verb.
I eat fruit daily. I do not eat fruit daily.
She eats fruit daily. She does not eat fruit daily.
[ he/ she / it – does] [ I/ you /we / they – do]
Simple past tense
We use did not with the root form of the verb:
She played baseball. She did not play baseball.
They wrote essays. They did not write essays.
Imperative sentences (commands)
We put do not (don’t) in the beginning of the sentence:
Close the door. Do not(don’t) close the door.
Give her the book. Do not (don’t) give her the book.
In spoken English the adverb ‘not’ is usually shortened to (n’t):
Unshortened form Shortened form
I am not I’m not
Is not Isn’t
Are not aren’t
Was not wasn’t
Have not haven’t
Has not hasn’t
Had not hadn’t
Do not don’t
Does not doesn’t
Did not didn’t
Could not couldn’t
Will not won’t
Would not wouldn’t
Shall not shan’t
Should not shouldn’t
Must not mustn’t
Ought not oughtn’t
Need not needn’t
Dare not daren’t
May not mayn’t
Might not mightn’t
I am a boy. I am (I’m) not a boy.
He is a doctor. He is not (isn’t) a doctor.
They are my friends. They are not (aren’t) my friends.
She was late yesterday. She was not wasn’t late yesterday.
He can speak French. He cannot (can’t) speak French.
She will go now. She will not (won’t) go now.
They may help us. They may not (mayn’t) help us.
It might cure her. It might not (mightn’t) cure her.
They ought to help her. They ought not (oughtn’t) help her.
Forming negatives using do (does)not and didnot.
I like mangoes. I do not (don’t) like mangoes.
They live in London. They do not (don’t) live in London.
He speaks Spanish. He does not speak Spanish.
They tried hard. They did not try hard.
She bought a new pen. She did not buy a new pen.
Do it now. Do not (don’t) do it now.
Call everybody. Do not (don’t) call everybody.
The negative question or interrogative negative is formed by first making the interrogative sentence and then placing the adverb ‘not’ after the subject. If the shortened form of (n’t) is used then it is placed with the finite verb before the subject.
The interrogative form of ‘I am not’ is ain’t (colloquial) or ‘I am not’ (formal).
She went to college yesterday.
Did he not go to the college yesterday?
Didn’t she go to the college yesterday?
He has been to Paris.
Has she not been to Paris?
Hasn’t she been to Paris?
FOUR WAYS OF FORMING QUESTIONS
Is Sheena reading?
Isn’t Sheena reading?
Sheena is reading, isn’t she?
Sheena is not reading, is she?
These questions may be answered with a ‘yes’ or ‘no’.
The last two Questions have been framed using Question tags.
Question tags are short questions added to the end of a sentence. A positive statement has a negative question tag and a negative statement has a positive question tag.
The new age is an age of oxymorons. There are contrasting views everywhere. The world is perhaps in its most confusing moments. The age old customs and traditions are under the radar and is changing rapidly. There is a complete overhaul of society and societal behaviour.
The strangest thing is the difference in thoughts , expectations and actions. People think something, expect something else and do something that is completely different in all respects.
We expect people to listen to us, accept us and do things which we like. Everything and everyone must cater to our needs, likes and dislikes. Anything apart from that makes us feel uneasy and we try to avoid such situations and people. Therein, lies the roots of alienation and isolation. The question is how far do we exert ourselves to accept others with their flaws?
People today, especially the younger generation, find it difficult to adjust. Adjust in the family, adjust with friends and in the workplace. Too much self indulgence in childhood makes it difficult for them to accept the fact, that the world will not cater to their needs throughout life.
Adapting does not mean permanent changes, it just means making small, quick adjustments.
Divorce, which was a taboo in the past, is a norm today. While, being a taboo had its drawbacks, being a norm has its drawbacks too. Being in a marriage needs some adjustments, just as being in the family you were born does. Love needs time and care to bloom. Taking things for granted is one of the disasters that ruins the charm in a relationship. Be grateful for everything and adjust to small things. However, if things are too difficult, it is better to part in an amiable manner, which is good for the heart and mind.
Adjustment with the right people, is always better than arguments with wrong people.
It is a necessity to adjust in life, be it in the workplace or a relationship. If not here, then somewhere else, but we have to adjust if we are living in a society. It is therefore better to have a cheerful attitude and enjoy life’s journey without creating unnecessary hassles for our own selves. Assess the pros and cons meticulously, before giving up on anything.
This life is unique and beautiful. ‘Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder.’ We’ve got to love life to see its beauty. For that we need to adjust with life itself. A cheerful and patient attitude makes the journey of life a pleasurable one.
Isolation and alienation is a gradual phenomenon. First, we get alienated from the society, then workplace, then family and ultimately with our own selves leading to depression. So, we must try to keep ourselves engaged in the service of others. It is the only path towards happiness.
Be happy and keep others happy. Adjust as much as possible, but draw the line sharply if necessity arises. The trick is not to give up easily. Everything has a positive and a negative side. Focus on positivity, and positivity will surround you.
Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier.
A well adjusted person has a mature personality and can understand the needs and problems of others. It is a pleasure to be in the company of such people.
Change being the only constant, will continue. Accept it. Our endeavour, should be to acclimatise ourselves according to circumstances and bring about a positive change.
The pessimist complains about the wind; the optimist expects it to change;the realist adjusts the sails.
There was a chill in the air. The drizzle continued for a week, and temperatures dropped down rapidly. It was the All Hallow’s Eve.
Children had run around, and the doorbell rung ceaselessly through the evening. I sat alone at my desk, trying to complete the story that I had been struggling with, for about a month. As the clock in the parlour struck twelve, I stretched, and got up to make myself some coffee as the night became colder.
Coffee in hand, I moved towards the window, enjoying the solitude of the night. The trees in the park across the road always fascinated me during the night. The familiar surroundings appeared strange and eerie in the dark. I liked looking at the strange shapes that trees made in the various shades of the dark. As I watched the drizzle beneath the lamp across the street, I saw something move on the bench beneath. My eyes had not deceived me. It was indeed a person wrapped up in a shawl lying on the bench. “Oh God!’ I said to myself. It was chilling outside and the man would surely be soaked in that constant drizzle. He would certainly die that chilling night, if he stayed outside.
A wave of pity surged through me and I went over to the person across the street. ‘Hello!’ I said. A deep cough underneath the cover was all the answer that I got. The man’s boots peeped out of the shawl at his slight movement. ‘Hello, Sir! It is indeed freezing tonight. Why don’t you come over to my house for the night?’ I paused… ‘I’m sure you would find comfort inside.’
The man opened his cover which was as soaked as the rest of him. He was rake thin and his sunken eyes could hardly be seen. ‘Please do follow me sir,” I requested as kindly as possible. “Thank ye fer yer kindness sire,” he replied, standing up inanimatedly and following me.
I heated up the soup, and buttered hot toasts to make him comfortable. I offered him dry clothes which he refused. “ I like bein’ in me own boots,” he mumbled. He sat in the darkness away from the light and kept his silence. “You must be very cold and totally drenched,” I tried to make him comfortable. He grunted something, refusing to take the conversation any further. I thought it better to show him his room and did so.
It felt good helping someone in a chilly night. I carried the dry clothes with me and was about to switch on the light of the guest room, when he put up his hand covering his eyes, putting up his other hand as a sign to stop. He must be sleepy, I thought putting the clothes meant for him on the table. As he went in I bade him goodnight. “G’night,’ he grunted. I smiled and closed the door, shrugging my shoulders at his strange behaviour.
That entire night I had troubled sleep. I tossed and turned on my bed and dreamt of strange people moving around the house. At one point I got up and got myself a glass of water. The deafening silence added to the strangeness of the night. I checked the door of the guest room and went back to bed.
Next morning, the weather seemed to have
cleared up nicely. As the bright beams escaped into the room through the folds
of the curtains, I rubbed my eyes as I remembered my guest. I was late in
getting up and wondered if my guest was already up. I felt grouchy sleeping
late and having those strange dreams.
The living room was empty and so was the cooking
area adjacent to it. “Good,” I thought, I would get time to prepare a nice breakfast.
I made coffee, toast and omelettes and took them to the guest room for the
guest. The blinds were still drawn and the bed empty. I guessed he was in the washroom and putting
the tray on the table, I withdrew the blinds. “Goodness! He has already made
the bed.” I observed.
I realised that I did not know the name of my guest. “Ahem!” I cleared my
throat near the washroom door. There wasn’t any sound coming out of the
washroom. It surprised me to see that it was latched from outside.
“Goodness Gracious!” I rushed towards the main door repenting my decision to invite the stranger to my house. To my surprise the door was locked from inside. Thank God! The man had not escaped with anything valuable. I sighed in relief. A feeling of guilt lingered at the back of my mind; we are quick to suspect others at the smallest pretext, I thought.
I looked for my guest in the other bedroom,
but found it empty. Has he by chance gone to my room, while I made breakfast? I
checked my room but it was empty. The apartment had three bed rooms and the
huge living room. I was utterly confused. Did my guest simply vanish into thin
“Hullo there!” I called out. There was no
response. My heart beat faster. I went to the guest room and checked the
clothes I had given him. They were as I had kept them. He must have slept in
his drenched clothes. I checked the bed….. it was dry. My confusion increased.
I checked under the bed and then in every nook and corner of the house.
I checked the main door again … it was
I opened the door – a cold draught swept past me.
believed that on Samhain, the walls between our world, and that of the spirits
become thin enough… to allow the ghosts to pass through.
Do you need an essay plan? I was recently asked on Quora, the question and answer site, the following questions: “How can I organize my thoughts better and give structure to my blog?” and “How do I make my thoughts clear and organized?“ Today’s guest author, Lisa Griffin, answers those questions and offers more strategies […]
Sentence is the largest structural unit of a language. Sentences can be divided into three basic categories depending on its grammatical structure, i.e. the position and requirement of subject, verb etc.
Complex Sentence and
A simple sentence has one main clause. It has only one subject and one finite verb.
He is an artist.
In this sentence ‘he’ is the only subject, and ‘is’ the only
( Finite verb – a verb that changes with person, number and
I like cars. I liketo drive cars.
She likesto drive cars.
(I Like – He likes – finite verb) (to drive – non finite verb)
A sentence containing one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses is called a complex sentence.
They rested when evening came.
As the boxers advanced into the ring, the people said that they
would not allow them to fight.
The people said. (main clause)
As the boxers advanced into the ring. (subordinate clause)
That they would not allow them to fight. (subordinate clause)
We may add more subordinate clauses (dependent clause) to
make it more complex.
Adding 1 subordinate clause to the main clause.
Ronny went to school, though he did not want to.
Adding 2 subordinate clauses to the main clause.
Though Ronny went to school,he did not want to go, as he had not done his homework.
Adding 3 subordinate clauses to the main clause.
Though Ronny went to school, he did not want to go, as he had not done his homework and he will get punished.
A compound sentence contains two main clauses or independent clauses joined by a co-ordinating linker or conjunction.
He tried hard buthe did not succeed.
This sentence consists of two independent clauses joined by a
He tried hard. ( but)
He did not succeed.
Night came on andrain fell heavilyandwe all got wet.
This sentence consists of three independent clauses joined by
Night came on. (and)
Rain fell heavily. (and)
We all got wet.
A complex- compound sentence contains one main clause and two or more subordinate clause that are connected with a co-ordinating linker.
The man saidthat three workers had arrived and that four others were absent.
The man said -(main clause)
that three workers had arrived – (subordinate clause)
and -(co-ordinating linker)
that four others were absent. – (subordinate clause.)
One main clause and two subordinating clauses joined by a
A compound complex sentence contains two main clauses, in which one main clause has a sub-clause.
The Maths syllabus
is difficult and
since it was implemented years
ago, many students have failed.
The Maths syllabus is difficult -(main clause)
And – (co-ordinating linker)
since it was implemented years ago, – (subordinate clause)
many students have failed. – (main clause)
Examples of the five types of sentences based on structure.
Simple – He loves books.
Compound – He loves books and he often buys books.
Complex – He loves books which are interesting.
Complex compound – He loves books which are interesting and (which) have a lot of information.
Compound complex – He loves books but as they are expensive he buys them rarely.
Competition has always been something in schools and also in life. From a young age children are exposed to the idea that it’s good and even healthy to have a little competition in their daily lives. Schools encourage competition through sports, contests at schools, and pitting kids against each other to see who will get the best exam results or the most stars at the end of the term. Competitiveness is something that is always encouraged by governments and many people as being good for self-esteem and an important thing to get used to as competition exists in the workplace. But is it really such a good idea to have competition at schools and what happens if some kids never get to the top of the class?
How competition starts in schools
I grew up in the UK state education system. I went to an average primary school and an…