TYPES OF SENTENCES based on FUNCTIONS are:-
- ASSERTIVE SENTENCE
- IMPERATIVE SENTENCE
- INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE
- EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE
- OPTATIVE SENTENCE
In my last post on sentences I had written about the basic elements of a sentence. I had also briefly mentioned that sentences can be divided from different aspects. The aspects being i) Functional ii) Structural iii) Polarity iv) Voice and v) Pattern. In this post I shall elaborate on the types of sentences based on functions.
- A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called a declarative or assertive sentence.
It simply declares, asserts or makes a statement.
E.g. It is a bright and sunny day.
She likes to watch action movies.
It is a Ming vase.
FUNCTIONS OF ASSERTIVE SENTENCE.
- Narrating – I saw an UFO last evening.
- Stating – ‘He returned home a happy man.’
- Giving reason – ‘He was late as he had a small accident.’
- Demanding action – ‘I demand action against the culprit.’
- Expressing doubt – ‘I am unsure of her arrival.’
- Protesting – Cutting trees must be banned.
- Describing – The rainbow is beautiful.
- Expressing apprehension– I won’t be able to pass the exam.
- Giving information – Sharon has passed the exam.
- Expressing opinion – I think it is going to rain.
- Comparing – Ron is shorter than Harry.
- Giving warning – There’s a snake behind you.
- Confirming – Yes, I’m coming.
- Contradicting – ‘No, that’s not right.’
- Arguing – ‘You are wrong, I’m right.’
- Apologising – ‘I’m sorry ; I should not have said so.’
- Assuring – Of course, you will pass.
- Addressing – Hello, Miss Muffet.
- Answering – Yes, I am a doctor.
- Classifying – There are two types of voice: Active and passive.
- Comparing – Feather is lighter than wool.
- Defining – A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense.
- Hesitating – But, I can’t give you the whole cake.
- Illustrating – Latin is the mother of most European languages.
- A sentence that expresses a command or an entreaty is called an imperative sentence.
E.g. Please close the door.
You must not watch television for more than two hours.
Study hard to get good marks.
Have mercy upon us.
FUNCTIONS OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCES
- Alerting – Look out!
- Directing – Go straight and then turn left.
- Giving advice – Plant a tree.
- Giving order – Get out of the room.
- Giving permission – Yes, you may leave.
- Instructing – Draw a straight line.
- Inviting – Please come and grace the occasion.
- Reminding – Don’t forget to take your passport.
- Prohibiting – Don’t get up till you finish your homework.
- Instant commanding – Halt! Fire!
- A sentence that asks a question is called an interrogative sentence.
E.g. Where do you live?
Have you finished your work?
When did you visit Paris?
How much did it cost?
FUNCTIONS OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
- Asking for permission – May I speak?
- Asking for opinion – Is this dress looking good?
- Asking for reason – Why have you come late?
- Asking for confirmation – You are the doctor, aren’t you?
- Asking for information – How do I go there?
- Enquiring – Will you have another apple?
- Expressing doubt – Will it be sunny tomorrow?
- Expressing disgust – Who the hell does he think he is?
- Threatening – Who dares to challenge me?
- Making request – Will you please help me?
- Interrogating – When did you discover the theft?
- A sentence that expresses strong feeling or surprise is called an exclamatory sentence.
E.g. How very cold the morning is!
What a beautiful scenery!
What a shame!
What a selfish boy he is!
FUNCTIONS OF EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES
- Elation – What a pleasant surprise!
- Expressing wonder – What a beautiful scenery!
- Expressing joy – Hurrah! We have won.
- Expressing sorrow – Alas! My dog is no more.
- Expressing hatred – Fie! How horrible of you.
- Expressing disgust – Ugh! What a stench.
- Expressing compassion – Poor thing! She is so lonely.
- Encouragement – Bravo! Encore!
- Greeting – Hi! Nice to meet you.
- Bidding farewell – Goodbye!
- Optative sentences express a wish, a prayer or a blessing.
May you be happy.
Wish you a happy birthday.
Let it be true.
FUNCTIONS OF OPTATIVE SENTENCES
- Praying – May God bless you.
- Greeting – Wish you a Merry Christmas.
- Expressing Desire – May you succeed in all you do.
- Expressing good wishes– Long live the Queen.
- Expressing final wish – May his soul rest in peace.