The ground is soft and supple
You step on it and feel,
Surprised at first then shocked.
As you cannot find your feet,
A sense of dread engulfs the mind.

With the firm ground missing
Each and every motion,
Sucks your entire being
A bit more into the sand;
You try to grasp anything available.

The more you move
The deeper you sink,
Exhaustion seeps in
Hopelessness follows;
You let go to be drowned.

As the struggle ceases
The ground becomes firmer,
You buy time and find
You can get out slowly;
A step at a time.

With clear thinking
And planned action,
You can come out
Of the quicksand;
Be it in mind or real.


Summer vacations- of Gen Alpha

We journeyed in sweltering heat

As the AC failed to keep its promise.

The sudden darkening of the sky

Materialised relief and a Kalbaishakhi

Sweeping the road ahead

Dropping sweet ripened mangoes.

Mammoth drops fell unsteadily

On and off on the windshield

The youngest pointed out in glee

As we drove across a bridge –

Look at the wet riverbed, mom

What a pleasant sight it is!

A Letter to God

  G.L Fuentes


Summary of – A Letter to God

The Story is set in a Latin American country and deals with the experiences of  Lencho, a farmer who lived on the crest of a low hill. He was hoping that it would rain, and felt elated when it started raining at dinner time. He felt so happy that he told his wife that the raindrops to him were like ten cents and five cent coins, as they would bring in a good harvest. Huge clouds were seen approaching from the north-east and the wind blew pleasantly. Suddenly, a hailstorm started and the hails truly resembled silver coins. The boys excitedly ran out to collect the hailstones which glistened like pearls. However, the hailstorm continued for an hour and destroyed the crops entirely. Not a leaf stayed on the branches and the hard labour of the farmers were wasted. The entire valley, house, cornfield, garden and hillside looked white. It was as if everything was covered with white salt.

The aftermath of the storm was shocking for Lencho and his family. The entire crop was destroyed to such extent that Lencho commented that even a plague of crop destroying Locusts would have left more than what the hailstorm had left. All their work was in vain and he feared that they would have to starve that year due to lack of food. However, when everything is lost the thing that remains is hope. Lencho and his family had unwavering faith in God and they knew that the eyes of God observed everything and nobody died of hunger. Though Lencho worked like an Ox in the feilds, he still knew how to write and decided to write a letter to God telling him of his woes and requesting him to help. So, the next Sunday at dawn, he wrote a letter to God and went to the town to post it.

In the letter he informed God about his crop failure and requested him to send him a 100 pesos to plant crops and to survive till the next crop came. At the post office he stuck a stamp on the envelope addressed ‘To God’ and posted it. One of the employees, who was sorting the letter found the address amusing and took it to the post master. The postmaster was both bemused and impressed with the kind of faith Lencho had in the almighty. To retain his immense faith, he decided to pool up money to help out Lencho. He gave a part of his salary and his friends too contributed for the cause of charity. The collected money which was more than half of the required amount was put in an envelope addressed to Lencho, accompanied by a letter with a single word God.

The next Sunday, Lencho came earlier than usual and enquired whether there was a letter for him. The postmaster who felt satisfied after doing a good deed, handed over the envelope to Lencho. He expected Lencho to be overjoyed to receive the money that they had collected. However, Lencho was not at all surprised to receive the money and became angry after counting it. Such was his unwavering faith in God that he was sure God could not have made a mistake.

 He immediately asked for pen and paper and wrote another letter which he posted. The curious postmaster immediately took it out of the mailbox and opened it.  In the letter Lencho complained to God that he had received only seventy pesos of the hundred that he had requested God to send him. He requested God to send him the remaining amount as he was in dire need of the money. He also told him not to send it through the mail as he suspected that the staff at the post office were dishonest and had swindled his money.

The ending is ironic as all the good work of the post office employees remained unappreciated and they were taken to be a bunch of crooks by the farmer.

Glossary – A Letter to God

cresttop of a mountain or hill
valley   low area of land between hills or mountains
ripe       fully developed and ready for harvest
downpourheavy rainfall
intimatelyin a private way
supperevening meal
god willingby grace of God
predictguess beforehand
approachingcoming forward
pleasurefeeling of satisfaction and happiness
hailstonepellets of hardened snow
resemblehaving similar appearance
exposingmaking visible
plagueepidemic caused by pests
locustscrop destroying insects moving in swarms
solitaryexisting alone
conscienceinner sense of right or wrong
pesocurrency of several Latin American countries
envelope(here) paper cover for letter
amiablehaving pleasant manner
correspondenceletters sent or received
evidentclearly seen or understood
resolutionfirm decision
charitymoney given out of generosity to help
deed(here) work
buncha group of something
crooksdishonest people

 Oral Comprehension Check   – Short Questions – A Letter to God

1. What did Lencho hope for?

Ans . Lencho hoped for a good rain or at least a shower, so that they might have a good harvest.

2. Why did Lencho say that the raindrops were like new coins?

Ans. To Lencho the raindrops were like new coins as they promised a good harvest, which would bring in profits.

3. How did the rain change? What happened to Lencho’s fields?

Ans. The big raindrops were soon replaced by big hailstones which really looked like silver coins and frozen pearls.

After an hour of hailstorm, Lencho’s fields were covered with hailstones. The cornfield was ruined and the field looked white as if it was covered with salt.

4. What were Lencho’s feelings when the hail stopped?

Ans. Lencho felt devastated as their entire work was destroyed by the hail. His heart was filled with sadness, he felt helpless and everything looked hopeless. He felt that there was no one who could help them and they would have to starve that year.

5. Who or what did Lencho have faith in? What did he do?

Ans. Lencho had unwavering faith in God. He in his simplicity wrote a letter to God requesting him to send a hundred pesos as his crop had failed.

6. Who read the letter?

Ans. The postmaster read the letter when it was handed over to him by a postman at the post office. He was amused to see the letter addressed to God.

7. What did the postmaster do then?           

Ans. The postmaster was impressed by the immense faith that Lencho had on God. He decided that they must do something to retain the childlike faith that Lencho had in the almighty. He decided that they must collect whatever amount they can, and hand it over to Lencho. He gave a part of his salary and his friends too contributed whatever amount they could as an act of charity.         

8. Was Lencho surprised to find a letter for him with money in it?

Ans. No, Lencho was not surprised even in the slightest manner. He had immense faith in God and was confident that God would send him the money.

9. What made him angry?

Ans. . He had expected that God would send him hundred pesos as he had requested, and was infuriated when he found that there were only seventy pesos. He was sure that the post office staff had stolen it as God cannot do any mistake nor could he have denied to keep Lencho’s request.

 10. “Lencho showed not the slightest surprise on seeing the money: such was his confidence- but he became angry when he saw the money” What does this line tell us about human psychology?

Ans. The given line tells us that at times faith in God comes as a source of hope when one encounters dire situations. Lencho’s immense faith led him to believe that God would help him in his need and therefore he unquestioningly took the money. However, it also highlights the conflict between faith in God and faith in humanity. The very man who has complete faith in God has no faith in the very men who went off their way to help him.

11.‘He was an ox of a man, working like an animal in the fields, but still he knew how to write.’ What does this line tell us about Lencho?

Ans. Lencho was a hard working man who was used to physical labour, but in spite of that he was not uneducated and was capable of writing a letter. The literary device used in ‘ an ox of a man’ is metaphor.

Thinking about the text

Question/Answers – A Letter to God

1. Who does Lencho have complete faith in? Which sentences in the story tell you this?

Ans.  Lencho had unwavering faith in God. The lines which tells us this are:

‘But in the hearts of all who lived in the solitary house in the middle of valley was a hope: help from God.’

‘ All through that night, Lencho thought of his one hope: the help from God…’

“God,” he wrote, “ if you don’t help me my family and I will go hungry this year.”

He wrote ‘To God’ on the envelope…

‘ Lencho showed not the slightest surprise on seeing the money: such was his confidence …God could not have made a mistake…’

2. Why does the postmaster send money to Lencho? Why does he sign the letter ‘God’?

Ans. The postmaster initially laughed at the letter addressed to God, but immediately turned serious in admiration of Lencho’s immense faith in God. So, he decided to collect money and give it to Lencho, in name of God, as an act of charity in respect for his devotion to God.

He signed the letter ‘God ‘ to reinstate Lencho’s faith in God.

3. Did Lencho try to find out who had sent the money to him? Why/Why not?

Ans. No, Lencho did not try to find out the source from where the money came.

Lencho had immense faith in God and believed that God could never deny his request nor could he ever make a mistake. There was not a sliver of doubt in him about God. Such was his confidence that he did not show the slightest surprise when he received the money sent by God.

4. Who does Lencho think has taken the rest of the money? What is the irony in the situation? (Remember that the irony of a situation is an unexpected aspect of it. An ironic situation is strange or amusing because it is the opposite of what is expected.)

Ans. Lencho believed that the post office staff had taken his money.

The irony in the situation was that it was the employees of the post office who had given a part of their hard earned money to retain Lencho’s unshakable faith in God. However, the faith turned to be so unshakable that Lencho thought that God could never make a mistake of sending him only seventy pesos instead of the hundred that he had requested. He came to the conclusion that it must be the post office employees who had taken the money instead of the other way around.

5. Are there people like Lencho in the real world? What kind of a person would you say he is? You may select appropriate words from the box to answer the question
Greedy,      naive,    stupid,      ungrateful,      selfish,     comical,     unquestioning

Ans. Yes. There are people like Lencho who have immensely deep faith in God. Although they might not be as naive as Lencho but  they believe everything that is taught to them without questioning the practicality or its validity.

The words naive, stupid, comical, unquestioning, greedy are appropriate for Lencho’s character. He is naive enough to think that he could send a letter to God via post. He is stupid enough to write ‘To God’ as the address of God. He takes the money unquestioningly and is comical in writing a complaint letter to God in receiving less than what he had requested, which again shows his greed as is not satisfied with what he received.

6. There are two kinds of conflict in the story: between humans and nature, and between humans themselves. How are these conflicts illustrated?

Ans. The first conflict depicted in the story is between human and nature. Nature bestows its bounties on all creations for their survival, but humans take nature’s bounties for granted and their greed is endless. Lencho was happy to receive the first showers which seemed to him as new coins instead of priceless water. Later, when nature disagrees with his aspirations and  the crop is destroyed by the hailstorm he turns to God for help.

The second conflict is among humans themselves. Humans teach that one must have unshakable faith in God and goes to all extent to keep that faith intact. However, they doubt integrity of humans and do not trust each other, while retaining their blind faith in God.

I. Look at the following sentence from the story.

Suddenly a strong wind began to blow and along with the rain very large hailstones began to fall.

‘Hailstones’ are small balls of ice that fall like rain. A storm in which hailstones fall is a ‘hailstorm’.

Match the names in the box with their descriptions below, and fill in the blanks.

gale,          whirlwind,              cyclone,         hurricane,                         tornado,                    typhoon

1. A violent tropical storm in which strong winds move in a circle: c y c l o n e.

2. An extremely strong wind : _gale_

3. A violent tropical storm with very strong winds : _typhoon_

4. A violent storm whose centre is a cloud in the shape of a funnel: _tornado_

5. A violent storm with very strong winds, especially in the western Atlantic Ocean: hurricane

6. A very strong wind that moves very fast in a spinning movement and causes a lot of damage: whirlwind.


II. Notice how the word ‘hope’ is used in these sentences from the story

(a) I hope it (the hailstorm) passes quickly.

(b) There was a single hope: help from God.

In the first example, ‘hope’ is a verb which means you wish for something to happen. In the second example it is a noun meaning a chance for something to happen.

Match the sentences in Column A with the meanings of ‘hope’ in Column B.

                             A                                 B
1. Will you get the subjects you want to study in college? I hope so.
2. I hope you don’t mind my saying this, but I don’t like the way you are arguing.
3. This discovery will give new hope to HIV/AIDS sufferers.
4. We were hoping against hope that the judges would not notice our mistakes.
5. I called early in the hope of speaking to her before she went to school.  
6. Just when everybody had given up hope, the fishermen came back, seven days after the cyclone.  
– a feeling that something good will probably happen  
– thinking that this would happen (It may or may not have happened.)  
– stopped believing that this good thing would happen  
– wanting something to happen (and thinking it quite possible)  
– showing concern that what you say should not offend or disturb the other person: a way of being Polite  
– wishing for something to happen, although this is very unlikely


                          A                                    B
1. Will you get the subjects you want to study in college? I hope so.    – wanting something to happen (and thinking it quite possible)  
2. I hope you don’t mind my saying this, but I don’t like the way you are arguing.  – showing concern that what you say should not offend or disturb the other person: a way of being Polite  
3. This discovery will give new hope to HIV/AIDS sufferers– a feeling that something good will probably happen  
4. We were hoping against hope that the judges would not notice our mistakes.  – wishing for something to happen, although this is very unlikely
5. I called early in the hope of speaking to her before she went to school.  – thinking that this would happen (It may or may not have happened.)  
6. Just when everybody had given up hope, the fishermen came back, seven days after the cyclone.  – stopped believing that this good thing would happen  

III. Relative Clauses in A Letter to God

(a) All morning Lencho — who knew his fields intimately — looked at the sky.

(b) The woman, who was preparing supper, replied, “Yes, God willing.’’

The italicised parts in the above sentences are relative clauses. They begin with relative pronouns who, whom, whose, and which.

The relative clauses in (a) and (b) above are called non-defining, as we already know the identity of the person they describe.

In non-defining relative clause we usually use a comma or a dash(-) before and after it. If it comes at the end, we put a full stop.

Join the sentences given below using who, whom, whose, which:

1. I often go to Mumbai. Mumbai is the commercial capital of India. (which)

Ans- I often go to Mumbai, which is the commercial capital of India.


2. My mother is going to host a TV show on cooking. She cooks very well. (who)

Ans -My mother, who cooks very well, is going to host a TV show on cooking.


3. These sportspersons are going to meet the President. Their performance has been excellent. (whose)

Ans- These sportspersons, whose performance has been excellent, are going to meet the President.


4. Lencho prayed to God. His eyes see into our minds. (whose)

Ans- Lencho prayed to God, whose eyes see into our minds.


5. This man cheated me. I trusted him. (whom)

This man, whom I trusted, cheated me.


IV. Using Negatives for Emphasis -A Letter to God

(i) These aren’t raindrops falling from the sky, they are new coins.

(iii) Lencho…had done nothing else but see the sky towards the northeast.

(iv) The man went out for no other reason than to have the pleasure of feeling the rain on his body.

(v) Lencho showed not the slightest surprise on seeing the money.


Find sentences in the story with negative words, which express the following ideas emphatically.

1. The trees lost all their leaves.

‘Not a leaf remained on the trees.’

2. The letter was addressed to God himself.

“It was nothing less than a letter to God.”

3. The postman saw this address for the first time in his career.

“Never in his career as a postman had he known that address.”

V. Metaphors in -A Letter to God

Metaphors compare two things or ideas: a quality or feature of one thing is transferred to another thing.

Find metaphors from the story to complete the table below.

CLOUDHuge mountains of cloudsThe mass or ‘hugeness’ of mountains
RAINDROPSNew coinsThey seemed like cents which would bring profits
HAILSTONESSilver coins/ frozen pearlsShiny priceless frozen drops resembling coins and pearls
LOCUSTSA plague of locustsAn epidemic (a disease) that spreads very rapidly and leaves many people dead
LENCHOAn ox of a manLencho did  hard physical labour  just like an ox.






  ENGLISH – CORE (301)


Time allowed: 3 Hrs.                                        Maximum Marks: 80

     Section A: READING SKILLS (20 marks)

  1. Read the passage given below                                                             10 marks
  2. Ghost nets aren’t supernatural, but they are legitimately scary. A ghost net is a fishing net that’s been lost or abandoned in the ocean. They are one particularly appalling part of the global ghost fishing problem, which includes fishing gear abandoned in the water. Any net or line left in the ocean can pose a threat to marine life. Just because a net is no longer used by fishers doesn’t mean it stops working. These nets continue to trap everything in their path, presenting a major problem for the health of our oceans and marine life.
  • Ghost nets entangle sea turtles, dolphins and porpoises, birds, sharks, seals and more, apart from catching fish. The nets keep animals from moving freely, cause injuries and keep mammals and birds from rising to the surface for air. Since hundreds of animals can be caught in a single net, this threat is monumental. The ghost nets harm coral reefs too—breaking corals, exposing them to disease and even blocking the reefs from needed sunlight.
  • Ghost nets are also a major contributor to the ocean plastics’ crisis. Most modern nets are made of nylon or other plastic compounds that can last for centuries. According to a 2018 study in Reports, ghost nets make up at least 46 percent of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Those abandoned fishing lines and nets that do breakdown never go away; they just become smaller pieces of plastic. Marine animals mistake this microplastic for food and eat it, which can harm internal organs, keep them from eating and expose them to toxic chemicals.
  • Exorcising ghost nets from our oceans will require commitment, cooperation and innovation. Many groups are working to remove ghost nets from the sea and are collaborating with local fishers and governments around the world to identify target areas and remove as many nets as possible. In 2015, a single World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF)-led mission in the Baltic Sea hauled up 268 tons of nets, ropes and other material.
  • To stop these nets from becoming ghosts in the first place, conservation organisations advocate for fishing gear that can be traced to its owner so anyone dumping nets can be fined an refundable deposits on nets to encourage returning or recycling rather than littering. Tools like sonar reflectors that can make ghost nets easier to find and working with small-scale fisheries to develop more sustainable fishing gear and practices are other suggestions. It is only by attacking this problem from all sides, together with conservation partners, fishers and supporters, can we ghost nets and protect our oceans.

(437 words) (www.worldwildlife.org)

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below.                                                 1×10

i. Complete the sentence by choosing an appropriate option.

Ghost nets have been named so because they

A. cause much harm to the marine life.

B. are functional though not in use by fishers.

C. are not owned by anyone.

D. act as a snare for all animals in oceans.

Ans. C. are not owned by anyone.

ii. Comment on the writer’s reference to the ghost nets as a health problem for the oceans, in paragraph one?

Ans.  The ghost nets are the main cause of the marine life frequently falling sick. If the issue is not addressed immediately, it would soon become a chronic health issue.

iii. List the two ways being entangled in a ghost net is likely to impact a walrus.

Ans. A walrus entangled in a ghost net might be injured by the other things in the net. It may also die of drowning if it fails to resurface for breath on being entangled in the net.

iv. Select the option that conveys the opposite of ‘negligible’, from words used in paragraph two.

A. unimpressive

B. monumental

C. exposing

D. threat

Ans. Monumental

v. The writer would not agree with the given statements based on paragraph three, except:

A. Most ghost nets take a few years to completely disintegrate.

B. Ghost nets contribute to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.

C. Most ghost nets provide nutrition to marine animals, upon disintegration.

D. Ghost nets can curtail freedom of marine animals.

Ans. C. Most ghost nets provide nutrition to marine animals, upon disintegration.

vi. Some records share that fishing nets used to be made of common rope made of natural fibres, prior to the 1960s. Based on your understanding of paragraph three, list one major advantage that these had over the fishing nets being used in present times.

Ans.  The natural fibres used for making nets prior to 1960’s were bio-degradable and disintegrated easily. Whereas, the modern nets are made up of nylon or other plastic compounds which do not disintegrate easily and might take centuries to be broken into smaller particles that pose fresh dangers for the ocean life .

vii Why is it fair to say that commitment and innovation have to go hand-in-hand to rid the oceans of ghost nets?

Ans.  It would definitely need commitment and long term plans to get rid of the problem of ghost nets as the problem itself has already become an enormous one and is increasing with time. Hand in hand with long term commitment innovative ideas and strategies to clear up the ocean from these nets would be essential. Developing alternatives to plastic and nylon would help in curbing the problem.

viii. Complete the given sentence with an appropriate inference, with respect to the following:

The writer quotes the example of the WWF led mission in the Baltic Sea (paragraph 4), in order to………………………..

Ans. Create awareness regarding the magnitude of the problem of ghost nets and the apathy of humans towards the problem.

ix. How can the solutions suggested in paragraph five best be described?

A. practical

B. presentable

C. popular

D. prejudiced

Ans.  A. practical

x. Select the most suitable title for the above passage.

A. The Scary Side of Ghost Nets

B. Ghost Nets – A Result of Human Dominance

C. Ghost Nets – A Menace to Marine Life

D. Ways to Tackle the Problem of Ghost Nets

Ans.  C. Ghost Nets – A Menace to Marine Life

II. Read the passage given below.

  1.   It is generally accepted that leadership development should be a part of the education system’s responsibility for preparing individuals to participate in a democratic and progressive society. Many schools, colleges and universities, across nations, provide their students with leadership courses, curricular programs and co-curricular programs that are designed to develop students’formal knowledge about leadership as well as opportunities and experiences to develop students as leaders and actually practise leadership. Yet, only a handful of studies have sought to understand leader development from the students’ point of view, with students describing their own experiences and what they learned from them in their own words.
  2. A 2014 descriptive study sought to understand student leadership with research through key events via the following research questions:

Research Question 1: What key events do student leaders in college, report as     significantly impacting their development as a leader?

Research Question 2: What lessons do student leaders in college, report learning as a result of the key events they have experienced?

Research Question 3: Are certain key events more likely to be linked to particular lessons?

Approximately 130 students were contacted and the 72 interested, were interviewed. Two members of the research team were present for each 15–45-minute interview. One member served as the primary interviewer while the second ran the audio equipment. The results for lessons learned (Table 1), were varied, but there were a few that were frequently quoted.

  • This study described the rich array of leadership lessons that students are learning through their experiences. It revealed that student leaders are learning foundational leadership skills and competencies that have positively impacted how to accomplish work, how to work with others and how to be both supported by and support others.

(295 words)(www.researchgate.net)

II. Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below.                                                                                                           1×10

i. Does the following statement agree with the information given in paragraph?

The researcher believes that educational institutions have ideal resources to study impact of leadership skills on young adults.

Select from the following:

True – if the statement agrees with the information

False – if the statement contradicts the information

Not Given – if there is no information on this


 (the text tells us that educational institutions do have programmes to develop leadership skills)

ii.  Do you think the researchers of the study aimed to change students’ outlook towards the development of leadership skills, directly or indirectly? Support your answer with reference to the text.

Ans. No, the aim of seeking students’ perspectives was to improve designing and creation of leadership programmes in educational institutions.

iii. Select the option that displays the most likely reason for including Research Question 3 in the 2014 study.

                     In order to find out if…

                    A. learning opportunities shape students’ overall personality.

                    B. leadership lessons are the result of the designed learning opportunities.

                    C. all learning opportunities cater to a specific lesson.

                    D. certain lessons are common in more than one learning opportunity.

     Ans.  D. certain lessons are common in more than one

iv. Complete the sentence based on the following statement:

                    More than 50% of the identified student respondents were keen to participate in

                    the 2014 study. We can say this because ______

      Ans.    72 of 130 students consented and were interviewed- which is more than 50 %.

v. Which key event has been designed with “Balancing Roles” (Table 1) as the objective?

                    A. Students will be able to debate the issue at hand with different teams.

                    B. Students will be able to manage the responsibilities of a mentor, planner

                        researcher and presenter.

                    C. Students will be able to surmount minor problems and focus on the final goal.

D. Students will be able to explain concepts and clarify them for peers.

       Ans. B. Students will be able to manage the responsibilities of a mentor, planner, researcher and presenter.

vi.  The 2014 study attempts to understand student leadership by focussing on

                     (Choose the correct option.)

                     A. experiences that shaped students’ overall personality.

                     B. lessons gained by students as they grew up.

                     C. relationship of key events with particular lessons.

                     D. students in leadership roles.

       Ans.     C. relationship of key events with particular lessons.

vii. The lessons for ‘Individual competencies’ had a range of responses.

                     Give one reason why having the least number of responses for ‘Decision

                     Making’, is a matter that needs attention.

       Ans.     ‘Decision Making’, is a matter that needs attention because the least number of responses on this important skill shows that the student  experiences and the programs do not provide enough exposure for the development of decision making skills.

viii.  Complete the given sentence by selecting the most appropriate option.

                 The concluding sentence of the text makes a clear case for by listing it as

                 a core competency for student leadership.

                     A. collaboration

                     B. flexibility

                     C. hard work

                     D. observation

      Ans. A. Collaboration

 ix. Complete the sentence appropriately with one/ two words.

In the context of “Working with Others” in Table 1, the lesson of ‘Conflict’ refers to.

     Ans. Being able to resolve problems in an easy and effective manner.

x. Based on the reading of the text, state a point to challenge the given statement.

                When theoretical knowledge about leadership suffices, it is a waste of funds by

                 educational organisations, to organise leadership camps and programmes.

      Ans. I do not agree with the given statement because no amount of theoretical  knowledge can help students to apply their learning in real life situations unless they practically apply their leadership skills through camps and programmes.

                                          III SECTION B – CREATIVE WRITING SKILLS

All the names and addresses used in the questions are fictitious. Resemblance, if any, is purely coincidental.

1. Attempt ANY ONE from A and B given below.                                                 5 marks


      Marking scheme for Notice: format–1, content-2,organisation of ideas,-1accuracy-1

1.A You are Josely Mathew, the President of the school book club. The club is organising a drive for promoting reuse of study materials and books. Draft a notice in about 50 words, for the school notice board, addressing students of classes X-XII, informing them about this drive and urging them to contribute to the endeavour. Mention how the donated books would benefit a charitable cause.


1.B As the House Captain of A.B.M Public school, Telangana, draft a notice in not more than 50 words for the school notice board, informing House members from X-XII about the change in topic and submission dates for Round 1 of ‘Discovery’ – the upcoming Inter-House Research-based Paper Presentation Competition. Do not forget to issue an apology for the above. You are Kruthika Reddy.

                                           INVITATION and REPLIES

2. Attempt ANY ONE from A and B given below.                                                                 5

Marking scheme – Format – 1 ,Content -2, Organisation of ideas -1,  Accuracy 1

2.A You are Dr. Suchitra Mukherjee. You have received an invitation from the Director, Health Services, Kharagpur, W.B, to preside over a gathering of leading medical practitioners attending a workshop on mental wellness on 09 November, 2023 at 11 a.m. in the Public Hospital, Jammu, J & K. Respond to accept the invitation.


Department of English

XYZ University

20th October, 2023


Health Services

Kharagpur. W.B

Subject: Reply to invitation


I am glad to have received your invitation to preside over the workshop on mental wellness on 09/11/’23 at 11 a.m. at the Public Hospital, Jammu, J&K.  . It will be my pleasure to be a part of this prestigious event, where I’ll get an opportunity to interact with leading medical practitioners . I confirm my presence for the event. Looking forward to the event.

Yours sincerely

Dr. Suchitra Mitra


2.B Draft an invitation in about 50 words, on behalf of your aunt, Meghna Menon, which she has to share to invite prior work colleagues to the inaugural event of her own investment consultancy firm, in the Acer mall, Kozhikode, Kerala.


3. Attempt ANY ONE from A and B given below.                                               5 marks

Marking Scheme-Format – 1, Content -2, Organisation of ideas -1, Accuracy-1

3.A You are Minu Sen, an intern in a software company in Hyderabad. You feel that the growing relationship of companies with non-profit organisations have made Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) the buzzword today. Your own involvement in one such project for your company has convinced you that CSR looks beyond the company profits and focuses on benefiting the greater community.
Write a letter to the editor of a national daily in about 120-150 words sharing your opinion about CSR and its advantages and provide suggestions to make it an integral part of every organisation. Use the given cues along with your own ideas to compose this letter.


A/1 Avenue

Vasant Vihar


20 February, 2023

The Editor

Times of India

New Delhi -01

Subject: Making CSR a mandatory for every organisation.


Through the columns of your esteemed daily, I would like to draw the attention of the concerned authorities for making CSR a mandatory part of every organisation.

 My involvement with CSR projects enlightened me about the types of CSR projects like environmental initiatives , charity work, ethical labour practices, volunteer projects, and how they help  in the development of the communities. We organised a camp for women on micro-financing through which they were able to become financially independent.

There are numerous advantages of implementing CSR activities. They not only enhance the brand value  and thereby increase sales of the company but also help in generating positive public attention and poverty alleviation in short and specific period of time.

It is my request to the authorities to make CSR activities an integral part of every organisation and help in the development of the society and our country at large.

Thanking you

Yours Sincerely

Minu Sen


3B. You are Minu Sen, employed as an Asst. Manager for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in your current company in Hyderabad. You saw the given advertisement in the newspaper and wish to apply for the position advertised.


A/1 Avenue

Vasant Vihar


20 February, 20XX

Gagan Vij

HR. Head

Credit Sage Pvt. Ltd.



With reference to the advertisement published in the XYZ newspaper on 20th February, 20XX, I would like to extend my candidature for the post of Corporate Social Responsibility Manager (CSR) Head in Credit Sage Pvt. Ltd .

I have completed my B.A in Public Relations form Shriram College New Delhi. I am presently working as an Asst. Manager for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in ABC. & Co. In association  with an NGO ‘Unnati’ working for the development of the deprived in Amungi village (A.P).             .

If selected, I would work with complete sincerity, honesty and effectiveness. I hereby enclose my curriculum vitae for your perusal and hope for a positive reply.

Thanking you

Yours sincerely

Minu Sen


Name – Minu Sen

Mother’s Name – Mrs. Mahima Sen

Father’s Name – Mr. Madhav Sen

Gender – Female

Date of Birth – 20/12/19XX

Address – A/1 Avenue, Vasant Vihar, Hyderabad

Email id – minusen@gmail.com

Academic Qualification

ExamBoard/ UniversitySchool/collegeGrade
XCBSEDelhi Public School, Hyderabad A+
XIICBSEDelhi Public School, Hyderabad A+ 
B.ADelhi UniversityShriram College, New Delhi   94%

Work Experience –  1) 2 years experience as an Asst. Manager for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in ABC. & Co. Hyderabad.

Achievements- 1) Best CSR Strategist Award -20XX (ABC. & Co. Hyderabad)

                           2)  Student of the year (20XX) DPS, Hyderabad

Hobbies – 1) Composing music

                  2) Gardening

Languages known – 1) Hindi (read, write, speak)

                                 2) English (read, write, speak)

                                 3) Telugu  (read, write, speak)

Reference : 1) XYZ, Dean Shriram College. New Delhi.

                     2) ABC, HRD Manager, ABC. & Co. Hyderabad

I do, hereby, certify   that the information given above is true to the best of my knowledge and ability.

Date: 20/02/20XX                                                                                Minu Sen     

4. Attempt ANY ONE from A and B given below.                                         5 marks


Format – 1 Content -2 Organisation of ideas -1 Accuracy 1                                                                                                   

The construction sector is believed to be quite hazardous and has the maximum number of fatal work injuries because apart from other causes, stakeholders in this sector tend to ignore safety regulations. As a columnist for an e-magazine, draft an article in about 120-150 words, on the theme of the importance of worker safety in construction zones. Explore possible reasons for the prevailing situation and include suggestions for addressing it. Support your ideas with cues given below.



                                                                                                    By Xyz

It is a well known fact that the construction sector is full of risks and perils. Most of the fatal accidents this sector is due to the negligence of the stakeholders in ensuring safety measures for the construction workers.

The construction workers are often exploited and  made to work overtime due to which they become fatigued and lose their focus resulting in accidents. Further, while working in extreme weather conditions they lose concentration and health which lead to accidents and illness. It is estimated that more than 6000 migrant workers have perished in construction work leading to the World Cup 2022.

Most of these accidents are preventable. The managers are not from Mars nor are the workers from Venus that they are unaware of the risks involved. Training programmes and awareness campaigns for stakeholders and construction workers is the need of the hour. Stricter laws will also help in reducing accidents associated with the sector.



4.B The construction sector is believed to be quite hazardous and has the maximum number of fatal work injuries. A safety fair was organised by ‘Building Safely’, an NGO in Mysuru, Karnataka with the overarching theme ,‘Worker Safety Needs to be a Priority in Construction Zones’. You were asked to cover this event as the junior correspondent of a local daily. Write a report covering this event in about 120-150 words. Support your ideas with outline cues given below, to craft your newspaper report.



                                                                                   Report by ABC (Junior correspondent)

Mysuru, 20th February, 20XX: Keeping in mind the importance of safety measures, a safety fair was held in Dasara Ground, Mysuru, Karnataka, on 2nd February, 20XX by ‘Building Safely’ an NGO working on safety of construction workers.

A total of 300 participants from various construction companies participated in the safety fair.  The programme started with toolbox talks on ‘Managing Health and Safety in Construction’, followed by a video presentation dedicated to the deceased. The President of ‘Building Safely’ delivered a speech on importance of following safety procedures.  An emergency response drill took place which was followed by several safety demonstrations and safety games. 

A special insurance scheme was inaugurated for the benefit of workers. The fair concluded with a vote of thanks by Mr XYZ of ABC Construction Pvt. Ltd. A lunch with the administrative officials was held for construction workers. The fair was a grand success and beneficial for the participants.  

                                                  SECTION C – LITERATURE

IV Read the given extracts to attempt the questions with reference to context


It is in the news that all these pitiful kin

Are to be bought out and mercifully gathered in

To live in villages, next to the theatre and the store,

Where they won’t have to think for themselves anymore,

While greedy good-doers, beneficent beasts of prey,

Swarm over their lives enforcing benefits

That are calculated to soothe them out of their wits,

And by teaching them how to sleep they sleep all day,

Destroy their sleeping at night the ancient way.

i. What is the tone of the poet in the above lines?

(i) Aggressive

(ii) Tolerant

(iii) Sarcastic

(iv) Resigned

(v) Sentimental

Choose the most appropriate option.

A. Only (i)

B. (ii) and (iii)

C. (i), (iv) and (v)

D. Only (iii)

Ans.  D. Only (iii)        

ii. Identify the phrase from the extract, that suggests the following:

No one bothers to take ‘their’ consent before pushing the promise of a better life, their way.

Ans. enforcing benefits

iii. What quality of the villagers can be inferred through these lines?

A. gullible

B. futuristic

C. hypocritical

D. ambitious

Ans. A. Gullible

iv. Complete the following analogy correctly. Do NOT repeat from used example.

greedy good doers: alliteration:: …………………………….. oxymoron

Ans.  beneficent beasts of prey

v. On the basis of the extract, choose the correct option with reference to (1) and (2) given below.

(1) The city dwellers make promises for the betterment of the villagers.

(2) The city dwellers have ulterior motives.

A. (1) is true but (2) is false.

B. (2) is true but (1) is false.

C. (2) is the reason for (1).

D. Both (1) and (2) cannot be inferred from the extract.

 Ans. C. (2) is the reason for (1).

vi. Fill the blank with an appropriate word, with reference to the extract.

The line ‘… calculated to soothe them out of their wits’ implies that ‘them’ are being                          ____________.

Ans. duped


IV Read the given extracts to attempt the questions with reference to context

1. B

A thing of beauty is a joy forever

Its loveliness increases, it will never

Pass into nothingness; but will keep

A bower quiet for us, and a sleep

Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing.

Therefore, on every morrow, are we wreathing

A flowery band to bind us to the earth

i. Choose the option that displays the same poetic device as used in the first line of the extract.

A. I’m as happy as I can be.

B. Life is a roller coaster ride.

C. Nature is God’s gift to us.

D. The dazzling divas enchanted all.

Ans. B. Life is a roller coaster ride. (Metaphor)

ii. What does the phrase ‘a bower quiet’ indicate?

A. serenity

B. morality

C. superiority

D. diversity

Ans. A. Serenity

iii. The benefits of a thing of beauty for humans include .

(i) healthy body

(ii) calm mind

(iii) struggle-free life

(iv) better relationships

(v) hope to carry on

Choose the most appropriate option.

A. Only (v)

B. (i), (ii) and (v)

C. (i), (iii) and (iv)

D. (ii) and (iv)

Ans. B. (i), (ii) and (v)

iv. Answer in ONE WORD.

When the poet says that ‘a thing of beauty’ will never pass into nothingness, he means that it is _______________.                                                                                         (1 mark)

Ans.  eternal/ everlasting        (any one word)

v. On the basis of the extract, choose the correct option with reference to the two statements given below.

(1) We are surrounded by beautiful things.

(2) Beautiful things provide us joy.

A. (1) can be inferred from the extract but (2) cannot.

B. (2) can be inferred from the extract but (1) cannot.

C. Both (1) and (2) can be inferred from the extract.

D. (2) is the reason for (1) and can be inferred from the extract.                                     (1mark)

Ans. B. (2) can be inferred from the extract but (1) cannot.

vi. Which of the following is an apt title for the extract?

A. Full to the Brim with Joy

B. Beauty Galore

C. Live Life King Size

D. Hope Floats

Ans.  D. Hope Floats


DERRY: You’re … peculiar. You say peculiar things. You ask questions I don’t understand.

MR LAMB: I like to talk. Have company. You don’t have to answer questions. You don’t have to stop here at all. The gate’s open.

DERRY: Yes, but…

MR LAMB: I’ve a hive of bees behind those trees over there. Some hear bees and they say, bees buzz. But when you listen to bees for a long while, they humm. .. and hum means ‘sing’. I hear them singing, my bees.

DERRY: But….I like it here. I came in because I liked it ….. when I looked over the wall.

MR LAMB: If you’d seen me, you’d not have come in.


i. List the playwright’s purpose of using ellipses (…) in this extract.

Ans.  The purpose of using ellipses is to tell that the character is pausing to think and gather his thoughts before speaking.

ii. Select the option that best describes Derry and Mr. Lamb in the extract.

A. Derry: introvert; Mr. Lamb: friendly

B. Derry: fearful; Mr. Lamb: domineering

C. Derry: friendly; Mr. Lamb: weird

D. Derry: open minded; Mr. Lamb: charming                                              (1 mark)  

Ans.  A. Derry: introvert; Mr. Lamb: friendly

iii. Which of the following best summarises Mr. Lamb’s attitude towards the bees?

A. Beauty is being true to yourself.

B. There is a kind of beauty in imperfection.

C. Beauty is the promise of happiness.

D. The beauty of the world lies in the details.

Ans. D. The beauty of the world lies in the details.

iv. Derry says, “I came in here because I liked it … .” What was the one significant thing Derry might have liked about the place, as per the extract?

Ans. The thing that Derry liked about the place was its tranquility, peacefulness and isolation. He could avoid people and be away from prying eyes. 


Students on Ice, the programme I was working with on the Shokalskiy, aims to do exactly this by taking high school students to the ends of the world and providing them with inspiring educational opportunities which will help them foster a new understanding and respect for our planet. It’s been in operation for six years now, headed by Canadian Geoff Green, who got tired of carting celebrities and retired, rich, curiosity seekers who could only ‘give’ back in a limited way. With Students on Ice, he offers the future generation of policy-makers a life-changing experience at an age when they’re ready to absorb, learn, and most importantly, act.

i. Complete the sentence appropriately, with reference to the extract.

The writer refers to the educational opportunities as ‘inspiring’ because .

Ans. These opportunities would give the students a first-hand experience about the necessity to preserve the planet and motivate them to work towards it.

ii. Which of the following would NOT be ‘a life changing experience’?

A. Being given the lead role in a play.

B. Going on an adventure trip.

C. Playing a video game.

D. Meeting a great leader, you admire.

Ans. C. Playing a video game.

iv. Why does the writer refer to ‘act’ as more important than ‘absorb’ or ‘learn’?

Ans.  Action is more important because mere knowledge is not enough. Knowledge only becomes fruitful when it is acted upon and the results are visible.


A girl from the countryside, she hadn’t gone through all the stages of worldly experience that generally precede a position of importance and sophistication that she had found herself catapulted into. She never quite recovered from the terror she felt that day. That was the end of a brief and brilliant acting career — the legal adviser, who was also a member of the Story Department, had unwittingly brought about that sad end. While every other member of the Department wore a kind of uniform — khadi dhoti with a slightly oversized and clumsily tailored white khadi shirt — the legal adviser wore pants and a tie and sometimes a coat that looked like a coat of mail. Often he looked alone and helpless …

i. ‘Stages of worldly experience’ in the given context would refer to .

A. good education to gain knowledge.

B. situations that require one to be street smart.

C. smaller, not so important roles in acting.

D. training in soft skills.

Ans.  B. situations that require one to be street smart.

ii. Select the suitable word from the extract to complete the following analogy:

sealed: closed :: propelled:_____________

Ans. catapulted

iii. Select the correct option to fill in the blank.

The harm done to the actress was a/an

A. well-planned act.

B. unintentional act.

C. act of jealousy.

D. act of male dominance.

Ans.  B. unintentional act.

iv. Based on the above extract choose the statement that is TRUE for the legal adviser.

A. He disliked the actress from the countryside.

B. He acted after thinking through things carefully.

C. He did not gel well with others in the Department.

D. He was always dressed smartly.      

Ans. C. did not gel well with others in the Department.

v. Identify the textual clue that allows the reader to infer that the writer is sympathetic towards the professional fate of the actor.

(Clue: a phrase)

Ans. The phrase ‘that sad end’ shows the writers sympathy.

vi. Complete the sentence with an appropriate explanation, as per the extract.

The writer uses the word ‘uniform’ to refer to the outfits of the Department members because just like a uniform_________ .

Ans.  represents a uniform dress code for people in organisations or institutions. Similarly, the members of the Story Department wore the same type of loose khadi shirts and khadi dhotis.



Some might make quite extravagant claims for it as being, in its highest form, a source of truth, and, in its practice, an art. Others, usually celebrities who see themselves as its victims, might despise the interview as an unwarranted intrusion into their lives, or feel that it somehow diminishes them, just as in some primitive cultures it is believed that if one takes a photographic portrait of somebody then one is stealing that person’s soul.

i. What is the most likely reason some people consider the practice of interview to be an art?

This could be because it requires-

A. fluency of words.

B. sensitive and careful handling.

C. creativity and imagination.

D. probing and focusing on details.

Ans. C. creativity and imagination.

ii. Rewrite the sentence by replacing the underlined phrase with its inference.

Celebrities feel that an interview diminishes them.

Ans. Celebrities feel that interviews make them look like common people.

iii. On the basis of the extract, choose the correct option with reference to the two statements given below.

(1) Celebrities don’t consent to be interviewed.

(2) Interviews intrude the privacy of celebrities.

A. (1) Can be inferred from the extract but (2) cannot.

B. (1) cannot be inferred from the extract but (2) can.

C. (1) is true but (2) is false.

D. (2) is the reason for (1).

Ans. D. (2) is the reason for (1).

iv. Rationalise, to support the given opinion:

To say that an interview, in its highest form, is a source of truth is an extravagant, claim.

Ans. It is an extravagant claim as an interview cannot be a source of truth due to the following-

Interview may be scripted OR People may make false statements OR Certain questions may be left unanswered.

v. Replace the underlined word with its antonym from the extract.

Some celebrities hate the idea of having to give an interview because it makes them feel like supporters.

Ans. victims

vi. The author’s views on interview, in the extract, can best be described as statements based on .

A. facts

B. hypothesis

C. beliefs

D. superstitions

Ans.  A. facts

V Answer ANY FIVE of the following in about 40-50 words each.     5*2=10

  1. “You realise the true value of a thing only on losing it.” Comment on this statement in the light of the story The Last Lesson

Ans. The people of Alsace became extremely saddened to hear that the Prussians had put a ban on teaching of French, and that M Hamel would be imparting the last lesson.

M Hamel was considered to be a strict teacher and his lessons were not taken seriously. It was only when he was told to leave the country that the people realised his priceless contribution towards teaching them their mother tongue.

1. State the common issue faced by most of the aged in the current times, with reference to the poem My Mother at Sixty-six.

Ans.  The problem of loneliness and lack of support structure is a common problem faced by the aged in the recent times. With the world becoming a global village and the well educated off-springs being employed in far-away places the parents in their old age find themselves without any support just like the poet’s mother who accompanies her daughter to the airport to bid her goodbye.

iii  What do we come to know about the author of Lost Spring – Anees Jung, through her interactions with Saheb and Mukesh?

Ans.  Anees Jung appears to be an observant sympathetic person who cares about the oppressed and the poor. Through her interactions with Saheb and Mukesh we come to know that she feels strongly about child labour and feels helpless at not being able to do anything to help them.

iv. Give two reasons why, according to Pablo Neruda, is ‘keeping quiet’ essential to attaining a better, more peaceful world?

Ans.  Keeping quiet helps us to introspect and reflect on our actions. In silence we are able to understand ourselves and our aims in a better manner. On reflecting on our actions we realise that our mindless actions are actually harming us and is the cause of our unhappiness.

v. If the Christmas spirit is about selflessness, forgiveness and becoming ‘better’ versions of ourselves amongst other things, Edla Willmansson is the epitome of this spirit. Justify with two points of evidence from The Rattrap.

Ans.  Edla Willmansson is indeed the epitome of Christmas spirit who inspired the rattrap seller to become a better person. Although she immediately came to know that the rattrap seller was not the Captain. She invited him to the house and provided him with shelter and food. She pleaded her father to let him stay when his mistake was realised and even invited him to celebrate Christmas with them the next year.

vi. How can we say that marriage was a compromise for Aunt Jennifer? Support your response with two justifications.

Ans. Aunt Jennifer’s marriage was a relationship of adjustment and compromise. She was terrified of her oppressive husband and was burdened by marital responsibilities. She fiercely wanted her freedom but was too timid to rebel. She couldn’t live her live as she would have liked to live but her desire for freedom was reflected through the tigers she wove.

VI Answer ANY TWO of the following in about 40-50 words each. 2*2=4

i. ‘It’s easy to judge others and give advice, but much more difficult to apply it to ourselves.’ Elaborate with reference to the character of Sam in The Third Level.

Ans. Sam was being judgmental when he told Charley that he was dissatisfied with life and was looking for an escape. The third level was just an imagination, so Charley should accept reality and be satisfied with it. However, Sam himself wanted an escape from the stress filled modern life and went in search for the third level.

ii. Comment on the writing style of the author, Kalki in The Tiger King.

Ans. Kalki uses simple, conversational, narrative style in the story The Tiger King. It is a satire on those in power, written with a comedic and humorous undertone. He uses exaggeration to mock at the manner in which society idolises those in power and nails the irony behind it.

iii. How do we know that Dr. Sadao was conscientious as well as loyal?

Ans. Dr. Sadao was conscientious when it came to his profession. He as a doctor operated on the wound of the soldier with care and saved him. On the other hand, he as a loyal citizen did his duty of informing the General about the prisoner and agreed to cooperate in the planned assassination of the soldier.

VII Answer ANY ONE of the following in about 120-150 words. 1*5=5

i. The prose selections, Deep Water and Indigo, bring out the importance of overcoming fear, in order to be able to lead our lives successfully.

Imagine yourself to be a motivational speaker who has to address high school students. Write this address in 120 – 150 words elaborating on occurrences from the two texts to inspire your audience and to convince them about the importance of overcoming fear.

You may begin like this …

Good morning, students!

We all know what it’s like to be afraid. Fear is our body’s natural response to a perceived threat or danger. But when …


Good morning, students!

We all know what it’s like to be afraid. Fear is our body’s natural response to a perceived threat or danger. But when we realise the basis of our fear and are determined to overcome it – our freedom to lead a life according to our wishes begins.

It is fear that prevents our progress. The people of Champaran were unable to fight for their rights because of their fear of the British. Similarly, William Douglas’s fear of water prevented him from fishing, canoeing and swimming. It was only when they decided to face their fear and devised a plan that they were able to overcome it. The people of Champaran  gathered around the courthouse in Motihari and William Douglas decided to learn swimming to overcome their fears.

Overcoming fear yields rich rewards but needs persistence and determination. It took nearly a year for the peasants to get justice and Douglas took months to get over his fear and learn swimming. 

Once they overcame their fear they were able to live their life to the fullest.

ii ‘Their mother sighed.

Sophie watched her back stooped over the sink and wondered at the incongruity of the delicate bow which fastened her apron strings.

The prose selection, Going Places includes this telling comment about Sophie’s mother.

In Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers, we are told that –

The massive weight of Uncle’s wedding band

Sits heavily upon Aunt Jennifer’s Hand.

Imagine a conversation between Sophie’s mother and Aunt Jennifer. Create this exchange with reference to the two extracts given above.

You may begin the conversation like this …

Sophie’s mother: Your embroidery is so beautiful. Do you love tigers?


You may begin the conversation like this …

Sophie’s mother: Your embroidery is so beautiful. Do you love tigers?

Aunt Jennifer: Yes, I do. Actually they reflect the kind of life I would have liked to live.

Sophie’s mother:  Hmm, unlike me they have freedom and power live as they want.

Aunt Jennifer: Exactly! My life is a burden because of my domineering husband. I’m afraid of him.

Sophie’s mother: I have to serve my family from dawn to dusk without any respite, while others get to entertain themselves all the time.

Aunt Jennifer: My only respite is my secret embroidery.

Sophie’s mother: It seems we will never have our own identities as humans with like and wants.

Aunt Jennifer: Yes, this oppression and servitude will hound us till our grave.

VIII Answer ANY ONE of the following in about 120-150 words. 1*5=5

i. On returning home, Tishani Doshi writes her thoughts reflecting on how her decision to enrol for the Students on Ice programme has been the single most important decision of her life that has completely transformed her. Imagine yourself to be Tishani and express these thoughts.

You may begin like this:

I can’t thank my stars enough for having cashed in on the opportunity of………..

Ans. I can’t thank my stars enough for having cashed in on the opportunity of enrolling for the ‘Students  on Ice’ programme. It was a life-changing experience for me. The experience of visiting an island uninhabited by humans was completely different from all other experiences. The landscape  being relatively pristine and unspoilt by humans provided an insight  into the earth’s past, present and the future. The melting glaciers due to human activities made me aware of the threat to the earth’s environment and all living beings at large as all life is interlinked. It was an eye opening experience which made me realise how minor things can have major impact on the earth therefore how important it was to take care of minor things. The trip was indeed one that completely transformed my mindset towards life.


ii. Both Bama and Zitkala Sa experienced the harsh reality of discrimination in their childhood. Instead of letting it pull them down, they both found a way to overcome it.

You wish to include a cameo* of both in your upcoming blog post.

As a part of the research, compare and contrast the experiences faced by the two and their response/s to these experiences, in 120-150 words.

[Clue: Include the similarities and differences in the discrimination they faced – their feelings – determination to overcome – success]

Ans.  The discriminatory experiences of both Bama and Zitkal Sa left indelible imprints on their young minds. While Bama faced discrimination due to her lower caste, Zitkal faced discrimination as she came from a different culture. Bama was furious and wanted to touch the packet of ‘vadai’ to rebel against the injustice when she came to know about the discriminatory practices by the higher castes.  Zitkal fought hard to avoid cutting her hair and thereby to protect her cultural practices although she was forced to give in at the end. Both Bama and Zitkal knew that education was the best way to fight against discriminatory practices and worked hard to excel in their fields. They both became writers and wrote against discrimination to spread awareness and fight for the rights of their communities.

Fire and Ice – Robert Frost

           Fire and Ice

Some say the world will end in fire

Some say in ice.

From what I’ve tasted of desire

I hold with those who favour fire.

But if it had to perish twice,

I think I know enough of hate

To say that for destruction ice

Is also great

And would suffice.

                                        ROBERT FROST

About the author – Robert Frost

Robert Frost was born on March 26th, 1873 in San Francisco and died in January 29, 1963.  Frost mostly wrote about the life and landscape of New England. He avoided the poetic experiments of his time and was a poet of traditional verse forms and meter.  Frost, one of the best-known and most beloved American poets of the 20th century, won the Pulitzer Prize four times for New Hampshire (1924), Collected Poems (1931), A Further Range (1937), and A Witness Tree (1943).

Fire and Ice was published in his Pulitzer Prize winning magazine ‘New Hampshire’ in 1920. This one of his most anthologized poem and is assumed to have taken inspiration from Dante’s ‘Inferno’. The nine lines of the poem represent the nine rings of hell.

Word meanings: Fire and Ice

Perish: die

Favour – support

Desire – strong emotion to get something

Suffice: be sufficient

Summary of ‘Fire and Ice’

In this symbolical poem Robert Frost ponders about the manner in which the world might come to an end. He says that people are of the opinion that the world may be destroyed due to fire (great passion) or ice (cold hatred).  

He further adds that from his experience of intense passion or great desire, he would say that unbridled emotion definitely has the capacity to bring about the end of the world.

Then he goes on to say that if the world is to be destroyed the second time- the ice cold qualities of hatred and indifference would prove to be equally competent in destroying the world.  The freezing of emotions would freeze relationships, encourage destructive tendencies in humans, which would result in destruction of the world.

Explanation of the poem – Fire and Ice

Some say the world will end in fire

Some say in ice.

The first two lines bring about the debate on the manner in which the world would come to an end. Through contradictory statements the poet says that there are people who say that the world would come to an end due to fire as a result of excessive heating up of the world. Then there is another group of people who hold the opinion that the end of the world would be an outcome of excessive dip in temperatures which would freeze the world and life would cease to exist.

From what I’ve tasted of desire

I hold with those who favour fire.

In the third and fourth line poet gives a metaphorical meaning to the word fire which represents deep passion or uncontrolled emotions in humans. He says that with his knowledge of human emotions he would side with those who say that the world would be destroyed by excessive desire for things which would result in massive destruction.

But if it had to perish twice,

I think I know enough of hate

To say that for destruction ice

Is also great

And would suffice.

In the last few lines the poet says that if the world needs to be destroyed a second time; ice, which is the metaphor for cold contempt, disdain, hatred and abhorrence, would be good enough for the task. Animosity would kill off all kind feelings and foster enmity among people. Hatred would lead to large scale destruction, and would be sufficient enough to bring about an end of the world.

Literary Devices in ‘Fire and Ice’

Alliteration – Repetition of same consonant sound in consecutive or nearby words.

I hold with those who favour fire. – ‘f’sound is repeated.

Some say in ice.-                                      ‘s’ sound is repeated

Anaphora– the repetition of a word or expression at the start of two or more consecutive lines

Some say – lines one and two begin with ‘Some say’

Assonance – Repetition of vowel sound in consecutive or nearby words.

I hold with those who favour fire.

Enjambment – continuation of a sentence to the next line. Here the entire poem is a continuous line.

‘From what I’ve tasted of desire

I hold with those who favour fire.’


To say that for destruction ice

Is also great

And would suffice.

Irony – use of words in which the superficial meaning is actually opposite to the real or literal meaning.

Is also great

And would suffice.

Paradox–  self -contradictory statement

But if it had to perish twice,

Understatement – use of an expression that is far less important or of lesser strength than it actually is. Opposite of exaggeration.

And would suffice.

Question / Answers of ‘Fire and Ice’

1. There are many ideas about how the world will ‘end’. Do you think the world will end some day? Have you ever thought what would happen if the sun got so hot that it ‘burst’, or grew colder and colder?

Ans.  In the rule of nature everything that has been created will be destroyed.  The world too will definitely come to an end at some point of time or the other. The end might be due to excessive rise in temperatures resulting in fire engulfing everything and bringing about an end of the world. On the other, hand if the temperatures dipped to extremely low temperatures, everything would be frozen and life would cease to exist.  

2. For Frost, what do ‘fire’ and ‘ice’ stand for? Here are some ideas: greed avarice cruelty lust conflict fury intolerance rigidity insensitivity coldness indifference hatred.

Ans.  In the poem ‘Fire’ is the metaphor for -, greed, avarice, cruelty, lust, passion, desire and fury. It stands for emotional intensity.

  ‘Ice’ stands for intolerance, rigidity, insensitivity, coldness, indifference, contempt, disdain, abhorrence, animosity, enmity and hatred. It stands for emotional numbness.

3. What is the rhyme scheme of the poem? How does it help in bringing out the contrasting ideas in the poem?

The rhyme scheme of the poem is abaa bcbcb.

The poet has used the rhyme scheme to bring forth the paradoxical ideas of different people regarding the manner in which the world would come to an end. The rhyme scheme effectively creates sound effects that leave a lasting effect on the listeners. It also intends to evoke the desired emotions among the listeners. The constant change of rhyming words from ‘ire’ to ‘ice’ has been deliberately used to bring out the two contrasting ideas of desire and hatred which might bring about a catastrophic end to the world.

Extra Questions- ‘Fire and Ice’

Q. What is the message of the poem ‘Fire and Ice’?

Ans. Through the poem the poet gives the message that lack of control over human emotions has the capacity to bring out an apocalypse and a catastrophic end to the world.

Q. What is the theme of the poem ‘Fire and Ice’?

Ans. The theme of ‘Fire and Ice’ is the destructive power of unbridled human emotions which can bring about an end to the world.

Q. What type of poem is ‘fire and ice’?

Ans. The poem is a work of ‘eschatology’ – writing about the end of the world. The poem debates the possible reasons for the catastrophic end of the world. It may be due to fire (desires) or ice (hatred).

Q. What is the tone of the poem ‘Fire and Ice’?

Ans. Frost has used a bleak, pessimistic tone in this poem to discuss the possible ways in which the world would come to an end.

Depreciation – of, by, for Humans

I feel belittled,
I feel worthless.
I feel my mind is but a snail
That’s old and worn.
It takes so much time;
So much of the precious time,
To create something mediocre.
Something that can easily be replaced,
By even the simplest of chat bots.
The supreme successors of ChatGPT.

My only consolation is –
That I do have things that AI lacks.
My ability to imagine,
And create things hitherto unknown.
To feel a myriad of emotions,
To live, to feel and to perish;
When my journey to earth is done.
To value God’s creations,
To love my loved ones to bits.
These still set me apart from the AI,
Which is till date inferior;
To the creations of the Supreme Lord.

Photo by Sanket Mishra

Dust of Snow – by Robert Frost

Dust of Snow

The way a crow

Shook down on me

The dust of snow

From a hemlock tree


Has given my heart

A change of mood

And saved some part

Of a day I had rued.

              Robert Frost

About the author – Robert Frost

Robert Frost was born on March 26th, 1873 in San Francisco and died in January 29, 1963.  Frost mostly wrote about the life and landscape of New England. He avoided the poetic experiments of his time and was a poet of traditional verse forms and meter.  Frost, one of the best-known and most beloved American poets of the 20th century, won the Pulitzer Prize four times for New Hampshire (1924), Collected Poems (1931), A Further Range (1937), and A Witness Tree (1943).

Summary of Dust of Snow

The poem tells us about the poet’s experience when he realised that temporary sorrows of life are but minor things when compared to the magnitude of the wonders of nature.

The poet narrates an incident when he was feeling upset. As he was walking beneath a hemlock tree he received a sprinkling of snow which was the outcome of a crow’s movement on the tree. The effect of the drizzle of snow on the plaintive poet was a transformational one.

It shook the poet out of his gloom and he realised how minute and unimportant his adverse circumstances were as compared to the immense magnitude of the world of nature. This realisation changed the poet’s melancholic mood and he once again became his happy positive self.

This short poem narrating a simple incident has a deeper underlying meaning. Through this poem the poet tells us that preconceived notions about things are not always true. We associate negativity with a lot of things in life, but those are actually the makings of our mind. He uses the scavenger crow and the poisonous hemlock tree to point out that they are a part of nature and nature always has a curative and transformational effect on humans. A small incident in the lap of nature was enough to pull him out of his melancholic mood and bring him back to his original happy self.

Explanation of Dust of Snow

The way a crow

Shook down on me

The dust of snow

From a hemlock tree

In the first stanza the poet describes how a crow which is taken to be a symbol of bad omen happened to shake down some snow from a hemlock tree on which it was perched. The hemlock tree which is a poisonous one is also associated with negativity just like the crow. This stanza simply mentions the two things in nature with which we have pre conceived notions of negativity happened to shake down dusts of snow, which symbolises positivity, on the despondent poet. 

Has given my heart

A change of mood

And saved some part

Of a day I had rued.

The second stanza is a continuation of the incident that took place in the first stanza and tells us about the effect that the incident had on the poet. The drizzling of snow from the hemlock tree due to the presence of the crow was like a shower of positivity on the dejected mind of the poet. He has been sad for a part of the day and the dust of snow made him realise how vast nature was and it lifted his mood. He became happy and was saved from being unhappy for the rest of the day by the sprinkling of fresh snow due to the presence of the so called inauspicious crow on the hemlock tree.  

Literary Devices in Dust of Snow

Alliteration – Repetition of same consonant sound in consecutive or nearby words.

Has given my heart – ‘h’ sound has been repeated.

And saved some part –‘s’ sound has been repeated.

Assonance – Repetition of vowel sound in consecutive or nearby words.

Shook down on me – ‘o’ sound has been repeated

Enjambment – continuation  of a sentence to the next line. Here the entire poem is a continuous line.

Word meanings

hemlock: A poisonous plant (tree) with small white flowers

rued: held in regret

Question /Answers of ‘Dust of Snow’

1. What is a “dust of snow”? What does the poet say has changed his mood? How has the poet’s mood changed?

Ans. The fine particles of snow falling from the hemlock tree due to the crow’s movements on the hemlock tree are being referred to as ‘dust of snow’.

The poet says that he had been brooding or ruing over some matter till that time of the day when the he received the sprinkling of snow beneath the hemlock tree. His feeling of sadness vanished with the falling of snow on him as he became aware of the magnitude and beauty of nature. It made him realise how insignificant his own troubles were.

The crow and the hemlock tree are both considered to be symbols of negativity and doom. However, nature does not discriminate among its creations, and all creations are same for nature. The poet’s melancholic and despondent mood changed to that of positivity and bliss when the dust of snow fell on him from the hemlock tree.

2. How does Frost present nature in this poem? The following questions may help you to think of an answer.
(i) What are the birds that are usually named in poems? Do you think a crow is often mentioned in poems? What images come to your mind when you think of a crow?

Ans. We usually find names of nightingale, dove, cuckoo, peacock, parrot, sparrow and the like in most poems. They are represented as symbols of beauty and positivity.

No, a crow is not usually mentioned in poems as they are considered to be inauspicious.

When I think of a crow, I think of it as a scavenger with a hoarse cry that is unpleasant to the ear. It brings dark images of grief and sorrow to my mind.

(ii) Again, what is “a hemlock tree”? Why doesn’t the poet write about a more ‘beautiful’ tree such as a maple, or an oak, or a pine?

Ans. A hemlock tree is a poisonous tree with white flowers. It is a pyramidal coniferous tree which is shadier than most conifers. Humans have attached a negative connotation with the tree owing to its poisonous nature.

The poet does not choose a more beautiful tree like the maple or oak due to two reasons.

  1. The hemlock tree aptly represents his sad and despondent mood.
  2. He wants people to shed their preconceived negative notions about things in nature.
(iii) What do the ‘crow’ and ‘hemlock’ represent — joy or sorrow? What does the dust of snow that the crow shakes off a hemlock tree stand for?

Ans.  The ‘crow’ and the ‘hemlock’ both represent sorrow in the poem. The poet uses them to portray his depressive mood in the materialistic world.

The dust of snow represents positivity and optimism in the world of nature. The dust of snow symbolises natural joy that is inherent in man. The dust of snow that is shaken off by a crow on a hemlock tree represents the transition of the poet’s mood from a sorrowful and pessimistic one to that of joy and optimism.

3. Have there been times when you felt depressed or hopeless? Have you experienced a similar moment that changed your mood that day?

Ans. Yes, there has been numerous times when the feeling of hopelessness grasped me and made me feel depressed.

Once it was raining and I was feeling depressed in the gloomy atmosphere. I had been upbraided by my parents for not reaching up to their expectations. Life looked meaningless and I felt hopeless. Suddenly the sky cleared and a double rainbow decorated the sky. Birds started chirping after the shower and the entire atmosphere became joyful. A sudden surge of happiness filled my life and I realised that life was full of tides of joy and sorrow. Everything is transient and there was no need to feel unhappy or worry about anything for long.

Extra Questions of Dust of Show
Q. What is the rhyme scheme of ‘Dust of Snow’?

Ans. The rhyme scheme of ‘Dust of Snow’ is abab cdcd.

The poem has two quatrains of four lined stanzas. The entire poem is enjambed so that the two stanzas form a continuous sentence.

Q. What is the theme of ‘Dust of Snow’?

Ans. The theme of ‘Dust of Snow’ is the immense therapeutic and curative power of nature that has the power to heal both the mind and the body of humans. The poem emphasises how little things in nature can be catalysts of positive change.

Q. What is the message of ‘Dust of Snow’?

Ans. Through the poem ‘Dust of Snow’ the poet gives us the message that little things in nature can bring about huge positive changes in life. He also tells us that preconceived negative notions that we associate with certain things in nature is not always true. They are mere creations of our mind. Those very things are capable of bringing around positive transformations in life. As he himself says-

This poem presents a moment that seems simple, but has a larger significance.

 “Always, always a larger significance…

A little thing touches a larger thing.”

Mute Spectators

I watched men saw down
Hundred year old trees
For widening roads
For constructing overpasses
For apartment complexes
With state of art amenities.

The hapless trees fell
Without tears or shrieks
Well paid for the oxygen
They gave us to breathe
Their silent curses combined
To pave the way for hell on earth.

Intense heat and hot winds
Parched throats in parched lands
Blaming greedy ancestors
For thier thoughtless actions
For not acting while there was time
To save the glaciers and the earth.

The naked earth sans trees
With unkempt highways
Abandoned complexes
Standing as witnesses
To the stupidities of generations
That destroyed the chances of the next.

We know what we do
Their outcomes we know too
But are drugged with avarice
We deliberately walk the way
Towards a future that is bleak
A future burnt with intense heat.

Photo by Lukas



About the authorDouglas James

Douglas James Jardine (1888-1948) was a British colonial administrator. He was educated in Westminster Abbey and Trinity College  (Cambridge). His most famous work was ‘ The Mad Mullah of Somaliland’, ‘The handbook of Cyprus’, and ‘If I were you’. He was the Governor of Leeward Islands from 1941 to 43.

Summary of ‘IF I Were You’

This play deals with the protagonists encounter with a criminal who intrudes into his house with novel plans of killing him.

Gerrard  – a playwright is about to leave his house with props for a rehersal when he encounters an intruder who threatens him with a revolver and forces him to sit down. The following conversation reveals him to be a murderer on the run from the police. He forces Gerrard to part with information about himself. He had earlier heard of Gerrard’s mysterious lifestyle and had picked him up as the person whose identity he would take up to hide from the police. He wants to surprise Gerrard with this information.

He reveals to Gerrard that he had killed a policeman while escaping after a jewellery theft. Therefore Gerrard’s identity would be an ideal one for him, as Gerrard lived an isolated life and they also looked similar.

Gerrard being a playwright immediately cooks up a story and tells the intruder that it would be fruitless to kill him as he too was a murderer on the run. If the intruder took his identity he would be hanged for the murder that Gerrard had committed. He also tells him the he had posted an accomplice to inform him about the police if they come for Gerrard.

Just then the telephone rings and Gerrard tells him that the police were coming for him so they both must escape. He tells the intruder to peep through the garage door to verify for himself about the arrival of the police. The door which he shows is actually that of a cupboard and he pushes the intruder inside and locks the cupboard.

Gerrard then picks up the phone and tells the person on the other side that he had a slight botheration so he wouldn’t be able to deliver the props for the rehearsal. He also tells him calmly, to inform their friend the sergeant to come to his house at once. Gerrard thereby tricks the dangerous criminal and gets him arrested.

Match the words with their meanings.‘IF I Were You’

count on
to be smart
wise guy  
a dandy bus   tradespeople  
Sunday-school teacher
an informal expression for a fashionable vehicle
unnecessary and usually harmful  
sophisticated; well mannered  
here, a tone of voice  
an unexpected opportunity for success  
a Christian religious teacher who teaches on Sundays in Church  
(American English) a person who pretends to know a lot  
occupied; busy  


Word meanings according to the play. –‘IF I Were You’

Cultured  sophisticated; well mannered  
count on  depend on; rely on  
engaged  occupied; busy  
melodramatic  here, a tone of voice  
to be smart  (American English) an informal way of saying that one is being too clever  
inflection  exaggerated
wise guy  (American English) a person who pretends to know a lot
a dandy bus  an informal expression for a fashionable vehicle
tradespeople  merchants
gratuitous  unnecessary and usually harmful
dodge  avoid  
a lucky break  an unexpected opportunity for success  
Sunday-school teachera Christian religious teacher who teaches on Sundays in Church  

Thinking about the Text

I. Question / Answers of –’If I Were You’

1. “At last a sympathetic audience.”

(i) Who says this?

Ans. Gerrard says this to the intruder.

(ii) Why does he say it?

Ans. He says this to distract the intruder and delay his intention to finish him off.

(iii) Is he sarcastic or serious?

Ans. The speaker is being sarcastic as his real intention is to delay the intruder from killing him.

2. Why does the intruder choose Gerrard as the man whose identity he wants to take on?

Ans. The intruder chooses Gerrard to impersonate him because of their resemblance and also because he thinks Gerrard is a kind of ‘mystery man’ who did not interact with other people. This was exactly the kind of identity which would suit him, as he was on the run from the police.  

3. “I said it with bullets.”

(i) Who says this?

Ans. Vincent Charles Gerrard says this to the intruder in his home.

(ii) What does it mean?

Ans. It means that he had murdered someone by shooting him with bullets.

(iii) Is it the truth? What is the speaker’s reason for saying this?

Ans. No, it is not the truth. The speaker only says this to fool the intruder into believing that he too was a criminal on the run.

4. What is Gerrard’s profession? Quote the parts of the play that support your answer.

Ans.  Gerrard is a playwright and is involved with the world of plays or drama.

The words from the play which depict him as a playwright are-

i)‘ This is all very melodramatic, not very original.’

ii) ‘Finally a sympathetic audience.’

iii) ‘I said, you were luckier than most melodramatic villains.’

iv) ‘That’s a disguise outfit; false moustaches and what not’

v) ‘ Sorry I can’t let you have the props in time for time for the rehearsal.’;

vi) ‘ I think I’ll put it in my next play.’

5. “You’ll soon stop being smart.”

(i) Who says this?

Ans. The intruder says this to Gerrard.

(ii) Why does the speaker say it?

Ans. The speaker says this in order to threaten Gerrard.

(iii) What according to the speaker will stop Gerrard from being smart?

Ans. According to the speaker, Gerrard would stop being smart when he came to know of his intention to kill him and steal his identity to live a comfortable life.

6. “They can’t hang me twice.”

(i) Who says this?

Ans. The intruder says this.

(ii) Why does the speaker say it?

Ans. The intruder wants to assert that he isn’t worried about killing Gerrard as he had already murdered a cop and was wanted for murder. A person cannot be hanged twice so he was free to commit another murder.

7. “A mystery I propose to explain.” What is the mystery the speaker proposes to explain?

Ans. The speaker wants to explain to the intruder the reason behind his mysterious lifestyle. The reason for living in an isolated place and not meeting people.

8. “This is your big surprise.”

(i) Where has this been said in the play?

Ans. This line has been used twice in the play.

First, by the intruder when tells Gerrard that he plans to kill him and take his identity.

Second, when Gerrard tells the intruder that he too was on the run from the police, and if the intruder took his identity he would be hanged for the crime committed by Gerrard.

(ii) What is the surprise?

The intruders surprise for Gerrard was that he wanted to kill Gerrard and take away his identity.

Gerrard’s  surprise for the intruder was that he too was a murderer on the run from the police, and if the intruder took his identity he would be hanged for the crime committed by Gerrard.

Thinking about Language

I. Consult your dictionary and choose the correct word from the pairs given in brackets.

1. The (site, cite) of the accident was (ghastly/ghostly).

2. Our college (principle/principal) is very strict.

3. I studied (continuously/continually) for eight hours.

4. The fog had an adverse (affect/effect) on the traffic.

5. Cezanne, the famous French painter, was a brilliant (artist/artiste).

6. The book that you gave me yesterday is an extraordinary (collage/college) of science fiction and mystery.

7. Our school will (host/hoist) an exhibition on cruelty to animals and wildlife conservation.

8. Screw the lid tightly onto the top of the bottle and (shake/shape) well before using the contents.

II. Irony is when we say one thing but mean another, usually the opposite of what we say.

When someone makes a mistake and you say, “Oh! that was clever!”, that is irony. You’re saying ‘clever‘ to mean ‘not clever’.

Expressions we often use in an ironic fashion are:

• Oh, wasn’t that clever!/Oh that was clever!

• You have been a great help, I must say!

Read the play carefully and find the words and expressions Gerrard uses in an ironic way. Then say what these expressions really mean.

What the author saysWhat the author means  
Why, this is a surprise, Mr—er—He pretends that the intruder is a social visitor whom he is welcoming. In this way he hides his fear.  
At last a sympathetic audience!He pretends that the intruder wants to listen to him, whereas actually the intruder wants to find out information for his own use.  
I’ll be glad to assist you.He means to say that he is being forced to give information to the intruder against his wishes.
…I have had a spot of bother- quite amusing.It was actually not a minor issue, but a life threatening situation.
You have been so modest.He actually means to say that the intruder has gathered a lot of information about Gerrard without revealing anything about himself.

Dictionary Use

A word can mean different things in different contexts. Look at these three sentences:

• The students are taught to respect different cultures.

• The school is organising a cultural show.

• His voice is cultured.

In the first sentence the meaning of ‘culture’ (noun) is –way of life;

In the second sentence, ‘cultural’ (adjective) means – connected with art, literature and music;

In the third sentence, ‘cultured’ (verb) means – sophisticated, well mannered.

Look up the dictionary for the words and complete the table.

NounAdjectiveAdverbVerb Meaning  
sympathy  sympatheticsympatheticallySympathize (to have kind feelings for someone)
familiarity  familiarfamiliarlyFamiliarize (to get acquainted with)
comfort  comfortableComfortably  Comfort ( to console)
care  careful  carefullyCare (to look after someone)
surprise  surprisingsurprisinglySurprise ( to astonish)

Extra questions of – ‘IF I Were You’

Q. What message does the author give in the play ‘If I were You’?

Ans. The author warns his readers about the outcomes of wistful thinking like that of the intruder. He also tells the readers the benefits of having presence of mind and being calm in times of crisis.

Q. What is the theme of the play ‘If I were you’?

Ans. The theme of the play is the importance of being calm and using ones intelligence and presence of mind in times of crisis.

Q. Write  the character sketch of Gerrard.

Ans. Vincent Charles Gerrard is a brilliant play-write who nonchalantly encounters an intruder who is a coldblooded murderer. He is witty, intelligent and calm. He has great sense of humour which he uses to make ironical statements which make the conversation between the duo interesting and entertaining. He uses his presence of mind to cook up a story about the police coming for him. This makes the intruder nervous and he cunningly pushes him inside a cupboard and calls for the sergeant. Thus using his wit and self-control he handles an extremely tense situation and is successful in saving him own life.

Q. Draw the character sketch of the intruder in ‘If I Were You’.

Ans. The intruder is a scheming coldblooded murderer who has no qualms about taking innocent lives. He is street smart and dresses in a flashy manner. He is clever and ruthless in getting information from Gerrard. He has crafty plans to kill Gerrard and live using his identity. He is however outwitted by Gerrard who traps him by cooking up a story that would render his wistful thinking of replacing him as a useless plan.


Sometimes in life,
Thorns scatter your path;
You fail to move ahead,
On your choosen path.
You feel down and sad,
Life seems heavy as lead.

Take heart!
It’s God’s way of telling,
You’re taking the wrong turn;
You must tread a different way,
Unwillingly at first, then it’s fun.

You find it’s your calling,
The road best suited for you;
You become successful,
You become strong.
You realise you’ve been saved,
From taking that worng turn.

Photo by Josh Sorenson

Every problem is an opportunity in disguise.